Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name


Name from literature


Pathway from literature

renin-angiotensin system

Pathway from KEGG

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; Renin - angiotensin system; map04614


Human (9606)

Genome localization

1q32[5972 ],


Formed from prorenin in plasma and kidney. In peptidase family A1 (pepsin A family).

Rate-limiting Description

"Renin inhibitory peptides, and renin-specific antibodies can block the rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin cascade: namely, the cleavage of 4 amino acids from the angiotensinogen substrate by renin." (6205842)

"Renin is the enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of RAS, the cleavage of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (A-I)." (14728059)

"Renin is the rate-limiting enzyme in the renin-angiotensin system and thus dictates the level of the pressor hormone angiotensin-II." (16990260)

"Renin catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the RAS and, unlike ACE, has a high specificity for its endogenous protein substrate." (3334166)

"Renin, released by the kidney, circulates and acts-in the rate-limiting step of angiotensin II (Ang II) production-to convert angiotensinogen to inactive angiotensin I (Ang I)." (15731500)

"As the rate-limiting enzyme in ANGII production, renin inhibitors have been pursued as an additional class of anti-hypertensives." (16787263)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type


key enzyme;

"Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key enzyme in the production of angiotensin II and thus may participate in the modulation of cardiac growth." (15887470)

transcriptional factor;RP-2(390916)

"transcriptional regulation of renin expression via RP-2 but not CNRE is critical for blood pressure regulation by this gene." (18259612)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0002003 (P) angiotensin maturation [P00797 ];
GO:0043408 (P) regulation of MAPKKK cascade [P00797 ];
GO:0016020 (C) membrane [P00797 ];
GO:0005615 (C) extracellular space [P00797 ];
GO:0043231 (C) intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [P00797 ];
GO:0001822 (P) kidney development [P00797 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [P00797 ];
GO:0004190 (F) aspartic-type endopeptidase activity [P00797 ];
GO:0005102 (F) receptor binding [P00797 ];
GO:0004195 (F) renin activity [P00797 ];

Subcellular localization


extracellular [P00797 ];

membrane [P00797 ];

Disease relevance


Defects in REN are a cause of renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]. RTD is an autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype) [P00797 ];




Entrez Gene




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  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min