Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

2.5.1.18

Official Name

glutathione transferase

Name from literature

glutathione s transferase

Pathway from literature

arsenic biotransformation

Pathway from KEGG

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Glutathione metabolism; map00480

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450; map00980

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450; map00982

Organisms

Human (9606)

Genome localization

12p12.3-p12.1[4257 ], 6p12.1[221357 ], 6p12.1[2940 ], 11q13[2950 ], 22q11.2|22q11.23[2953 ], 6p12.1[2941 ], 6p12.1[2938 ], 1q23[4259 ], 1p13.3[2944 ], 1p13.3[2947 ], 1p13.3[2949 ], 6p12.1[2939 ], 7q35[373156 ], 10q25.1[9446 ], 1p13.3[2948 ], 10q25.1[119391 ], 14q24.3[2954 ], 1p13.3[2946 ], 22q11.23[2952 ], 4q28.3[4258 ],

Comments

A group of enzymes of broad specificity. R may be an aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic group; X may be a sulfate, nitrile or halide group. Also catalyses the addition of aliphatic epoxides and arene oxides to glutathione, the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrile, certain isomerization reactions and disulfide interchange.

Rate-limiting Description

"GSTO1, a member of the glutathione S-transferase superfamily omega, has recently been shown to be identical to the rate-limiting enzyme, monomethyl arsenous (MMA(V)) reductase which catalyzes methylarsonate (MMA(V)) to methylarsenous acid (MMA(III)) during arsenic biotransformation." (15761769)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

1432;6667;7088;7157;8848;4214;6927

Regulatory type

Detail

signal pathway;p38(1432)

"results indicate that certain content in maotai liquor is able to induce GST A1 ARE transcriptional expression, which may provide protective effects for hepatic cells via an ERKs- and p38 K-dependent pathway" (16786188)

transcriptional factor;HNF-1C(6927)

"IL-1beta represses GSTA1 transcription via a mechanism involving overexpression of variant HNF-1C." (17021248)

signal pathway;MEKK1(4214)

"Suppresses MEKK1-mediated apoptosis and functions as a negative regulator of MEKK1." (15299005)

signal pathway;

"GSTP1 is transcriptionally regulated by cAMP- and CREB-1 in human tumor cells" (12210727)

phosphorylation;

"phosphorylation of a serine residue in the C-terminal portion of GSTP1 where JNK binds, was identified in GSTP1 purified from Kato III cells, but not in GSTP1 purified from human erythrocytes" (15471539)

transcriptional factor;p53(7157)

"the human glutathione S-transferase P1 gene is a novel transcriptional target of the p53 tumor suppressor gene" (18505928)

transcriptional factor;sp1(6667)

"The results indicate that Sp1 is the protein mediating the basal transcription of MGST1" (12818425)

phosphorylation;

O15217

phosphorylation;

O43708

phosphorylation;

P08263

phosphorylation;

P09210

phosphorylation;

P09211

phosphorylation;

P09488

phosphorylation;

Q03013

phosphorylation;

P09211:from_uniprot:109_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

P09488:from_uniprot:23_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

P09488:from_uniprot:33_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

P09488:from_uniprot:34_Phosphothreonine

interact with TF;TLE1(7088)

"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome." (16169070)

interact with TF;TP53(7157)

"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome." (16169070)

interact with TF;TSC22D1(8848)

"Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry." (17353931)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0004602 (F) glutathione peroxidase activity [O43708 ];
GO:0006629 (P) lipid metabolic process [O14880 ];
GO:0006559 (P) L-phenylalanine catabolic process [O43708 ];
GO:0019370 (P) leukotriene biosynthetic process [Q99735 ];
GO:0006572 (P) tyrosine catabolic process [O43708 ];
GO:0005829 (C) cytosol [O43708 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [P09211, O15217, P46439, P21266, P08263, Q03013, A8MPT4, P28161, P09488, Q16772, P78417, Q7RTV2, P30712, P30711, Q9H4Y5, P09210 ];
GO:0042802 (F) identical protein binding [Q9Y2Q3 ];
GO:0016021 (C) integral to membrane [Q99735, O14880 ];
GO:0004601 (F) peroxidase activity [O14880 ];
GO:0007267 (P) cell-cell signaling [Q99735 ];
GO:0005777 (C) peroxisome [Q9Y2Q3 ];
GO:0005515 (F) protein binding [P09211, P21266 ];
GO:0015035 (F) protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity [Q9Y2Q3 ];
GO:0008152 (P) metabolic process [P09211, Q5SZC2, P21266, Q6P4G1, P28161, P09488, Q5JW85, O15217, P46439, Q5GHF8, Q03013, A8K987, P78417, Q16772, Q7RTV2, Q9H4Y5, Q068V6, P09210, Q5SZC1 ];
GO:0043627 (P) response to estrogen stimulus [P21266 ];
GO:0008065 (P) establishment of blood-nerve barrier [P21266 ];
GO:0005783 (C) endoplasmic reticulum [P10620 ];
GO:0004364 (F) glutathione transferase activity [Q9Y2Q3, P09211, Q5SZC2, Q99735, P21266, Q12760, P08263, P10620, Q6P4G1, P28161, P09488, P30711, Q5JW85, O15217, O43708, Q5GHF8, O14880, P46439, A8MPT4, Q03013, A8K987, Q16772, P78417, Q7RTV2, P30712, Q9H4Y5, Q068V6, P09210, Q5SZC1 ];
GO:0005739 (C) mitochondrion [O43708 ];
GO:0007165 (P) signal transduction [Q99735, O14880 ];
GO:0016656 (F) monodehydroascorbate reductase (NADH) activity [P78417 ];
GO:0005789 (C) endoplasmic reticulum membrane [Q99735, O14880 ];
GO:0007417 (P) central nervous system development [P09211 ];
GO:0006749 (P) glutathione metabolic process [P08263 ];
GO:0005634 (C) nucleus [P30712 ];
GO:0005792 (C) microsome [Q99735, O14880, P10620 ];
GO:0006916 (P) anti-apoptosis [P09211 ];
GO:0016034 (F) maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity [O43708 ];
GO:0030288 (C) outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space [Q9Y2Q3 ];
GO:0008047 (F) enzyme activator activity [Q99735 ];
GO:0005741 (C) mitochondrial outer membrane [P10620 ];

Tissue expression

Tissue From HPRD

Colon [10401, 05192, 13613, 00705, 02700, 02701, 06899 ];
Lymph node [05192 ];
Ubiquitous [06899 ];
Cardiac muscle [00707 ];
Salivary gland [13613, 00705 ];
Fetus [05192, 13613, 00705, 00707, 03436, 04785, 06899 ];
Aorta [00705, 00707 ];
Hepatocyte [02700 ];
Urinary bladder [00705 ];
Testis [10401, 13613, 00705, 00712, 03436, 13614, 07290, 00706, 05192, 00707, 00709, 00708, 00711 ];
Islets of Langerhans [00614 ];
Myoblast [00710 ];
Red blood cell [00614 ];
Brain [10401, 13613, 00705, 00712, 03436, 04785, 05192, 00706, 00707, 00709, 00711, 06899 ];
Spleen [10401, 05192, 13613, 00705, 03436 ];
Small intestine [10401, 05192, 13613, 00705 ];
Heart [10401, 13613, 00705, 00614, 00712, 04785, 00706, 05192, 00709, 06899 ];
Melanocyte [04785 ];
Adrenal medulla [05192 ];
Umbilical vein endothelial cell [03436 ];
Thyroid gland [05192, 00705 ];
Pituitary gland [00705, 00709 ];
Bronchial epithelial cell [00712 ];
Thymus [10401, 05192, 13613, 00705 ];
Substantia nigra [00710 ];
Uterus [10401, 00706, 13613, 00705 ];
Cerebral cortex [00706 ];
Spinal cord [13613 ];
Large intestine [06899 ];
Oesophagus [10401, 00614 ];
Leukocyte [10401, 05192, 13613, 00705, 03436 ];
Vermiform appendix [05192 ];
Bone marrow [05192, 13613, 03436 ];
Liver [10401, 13613, 00705, 00614, 00712, 03436, 02700, 04785, 13614, 05192, 00706, 00707, 00709, 00708, 02701, 06899 ];
Skeletal muscle [10401, 13613, 00705, 00712, 03436, 04785, 13614, 00706, 05192, 00707, 00710, 06899 ];
Umbilical cord [00708 ];
Muscle [00614 ];
Prostate [10401, 05192, 13613, 00705, 00614, 03436, 13614 ];
Kidney [10401, 13613, 00705, 00712, 04785, 13614, 05192, 00707, 00709, 00708, 06899 ];
Adrenal gland [07290, 13613, 00705, 00709, 00707 ];
Mammary gland [13613, 00705, 04785 ];
Monocyte [03436 ];
Bile duct [02700 ];
Gastric mucosa [02700, 02701 ];
Lung [13613, 00614, 03436, 05192, 00707, 00709, 00711, 02701, 10401, 00705, 00712, 02700, 04785, 00706, 00708, 06899 ];
Plasma [00708 ];
Ovary [10401, 07290, 05192, 00706, 00705, 00710 ];
Pancreas [10401, 13613, 00705, 00712, 03436, 04785, 00706, 05192, 09620, 00709, 06899 ];
Cervix [10401 ];
Adrenal cortex [05192, 03436 ];
Placenta [10401, 13613, 00705, 00614, 03436, 04785, 00706, 05192, 07290, 06899 ];
Trachea [13613, 00705 ];
Stomach [05192, 00707 ];

Tissue specificity

Highly expressed in liver [P10620 ];

Testis and brain [P21266 ];

Ubiquitous [Q9Y2Q3 ];

Expressed at a high level in brain, placenta, and skeletal muscle and much lower in lung and liver [O15217 ];

Liver (at protein level) [P09488 ];

Liver, spleen, skeletal muscle, heart, adrenals, pancreas, prostate, testis, fetal liver, and fetal spleen. Very low expression in lung, brain, placenta and bone marrow [Q99735 ];

Expressed in a wide variety of tissues [Q03013 ];

Expressed at low levels in liver. In lung, expressed at low levels in ciliated bronchiolar cells, alveolar macrophages and alveolar type II cells [P30712 ];

Predominantly expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, and adrenal cortex. Also found in brain, placenta, liver, kidney, pancreas, thyroid, testis and ovary. Almost absent in lung, thymus and peripheral blood leukocytes [O14880 ];

Liver [P08263, P09210 ];

Mostly expressed in liver followed by kidney, skeletal muscle and brain. Also expressed in melanocytes, synovium, placenta, breast and fetal liver and heart [O43708 ];

Expressed in a range of tissues, including the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and prostate. Strongest expression in the testis [Q9H4Y5 ];

Muscle [P28161 ];

Found in erythrocyte. Expressed at low levels in liver. In lung, expressed at low levels in Clara cells and ciliated cells at the alveolar/bronchiolar junction. Absent from epithelial cells of larger bronchioles [P30711 ];

Ubiquitous. Highest expression in liver, skeletal muscle and heart. Lowest expression in brain, placenta and lung [P78417 ];

Expression not detected [Q7RTV2 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

mitochondrion [P10620 ];

endoplasmic reticulum [Q99735, O14880, P10620 ];

peroxisome [Q9Y2Q3 ];

microsome [Q99735, O14880, P10620 ];

membrane [P10620 ];

cytoplasm [O43708, O15217, P46439, P21266, P08263, Q03013, A8MPT4, P28161, P09488, Q16772, P78417, Q7RTV2, P30712, P30711, P09210 ];

Links

SwissProt

A8K987; A8MPT4; B4DJW6; O14880; O15217; O43708; P08263; P09210; P09211; P09488; P10620; P21266; P28161; P30711; P30712; P46439; P78417; Q03013; Q068V6; Q12760; Q16772; Q5GHF8; Q5JW85; Q5SZC1; Q5SZC2; Q6P4G1; Q7RTV2; Q99735; Q9H4Y5; Q9Y2Q3

Entrez Gene

119391; 221357; 2938; 2939; 2940; 2941; 2944; 2946; 2947; 2948; 2949; 2950; 2952; 2953; 2954; 373156; 4257; 4258; 4259; 9446

HPRD

00712; 02701; 00706; 09620; 07290; 02700; 00710; 10401; 13614; 00709; 00705; 13613; 00707; 00711; 04785; 00614; 03436; 05192; 00708; 06899



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min