Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

sterol O-acyltransferase

Name from literature

acyl coA : cholesterol acyltransferase

Pathway from literature

cholesterol esterification

Pathway from KEGG

Lipid Metabolism; Bile acid biosynthesis; map00120


Human (9606)

Genome localization

12q13.13[8435 ], 1q25[6646 ],


The animal enzyme is highly specific for transfer of acyl groups with a single cis double bond that is nine carbon atoms distant from the carboxy group.

Rate-limiting Description

"In the present study, we set out to investigate the effect of the specific stimulation and inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol esterification, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)." (8820097)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type



"Human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 is a homotetrameric enzyme in intact cells and in vitro." (10593897)

key enzyme;

"More notably, when treated together with specific anti-ACAT inhibitors, the abundant cholesteryl ester accumulation was markedly diminished in THP-1-derived macrophages, confirming that ACAT is the key enzyme responsible for intracellular cholesteryl ester synthesis." (15353128#11457847)

transcriptional factor;HNF1alpha(6927),HNF1beta(6928)

"transcription factors hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF1)alpha and beta play an important part in the regulation of the ACAT2 promoter" (15961790)

interact with TF;E2F4(1874)

"Mapping DNA-protein interactions in large genomes by sequence tag analysis of genomic enrichment." (15782160)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0034738 (F) lanosterol O-acyltransferase activity [O75908, P35610 ];
GO:0016021 (C) integral to membrane [O75908, P35610 ];
GO:0008203 (P) cholesterol metabolic process [O75908, P35610 ];
GO:0008015 (P) blood circulation [P35610 ];
GO:0034737 (F) ergosterol O-acyltransferase activity [O75908, P35610 ];
GO:0034736 (F) cholesterol O-acyltransferase activity [O75908, P35610 ];
GO:0005789 (C) endoplasmic reticulum membrane [O75908, P35610 ];

Subcellular localization


endoplasmic reticulum [O75908, P35610 ];

Disease relevance


Accumulation of insoluble cholesterol esters in macrophages and smooth muscle is a characteristic feature of early lesions of atherosclerotic plaque [P35610 ];



B4DU95; O75908; P35610

Entrez Gene

6646; 8435


03202; 00033

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min