Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

alcohol dehydrogenase

Name from literature

alcohol dehydrogenase

Pathway from literature

alcohol oxidation

Pathway from KEGG

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450; map00980

Metabolism of Cofactors and Vitamins; Retinol metabolism; map00830

Lipid Metabolism; Fatty acid metabolism; map00071

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis; map00010

Amino Acid Metabolism; Tyrosine metabolism; map00350

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; 3-Chloroacrylic acid degradation; map00641

Lipid Metabolism; Bile acid biosynthesis; map00120

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; 1- and 2-Methylnaphthalene degradation; map00624

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450; map00982


Human (9606)

Genome localization

4q23[130 ], 4q21-q23[124 ], 4q21-q25[128 ], 4q21-q23[125 ], 4q21-q24|4q22[127 ], 4q23-q24[131 ], 4q21-q23[126 ],


A zinc protein. Acts on primary or secondary alcohols or hemi-acetals; the animal, but not the yeast, enzyme acts also on cyclic secondary alcohols.

Rate-limiting Description

"The rate-limiting step in alcohol metabolism is the oxidation (activation) of ethanol to acetaldehyde by the alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs)." (11303599)

"Since the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver is a rate-limiting factor for ethanol metabolism in experimental animals, it is likely that the type and content of the polymorphic isoenzyme subunit encoded at ADH2, beta-subunit, and at ADH3, the gamma-subunit, are contributing factors to the genetic variability in ethanol elimination rate." (3067025)

"The rate-limiting step in oxidation is conversion of ethanol into acetaldehyde by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which has a low Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.05-0.1 g/L." (12489977)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type


key enzyme;

"Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) is the key enzyme for elimination of acetaldehyde, an established animal carcinogen produced after drinking." (16499490)


"findings suggest that the alcohol dehydrogenase IB and IC genes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in human hepatoma cells" (16737450)

transcriptional factor;"GATA-2(2624),HNF-3beta"

"GATA-2 and HNF-3beta regulate the human alcohol dehydrogenase 1A (ADH1A) gene." (16153155)


"findings suggest that the alcohol dehydrogenase IB and IC genes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in human hepatoma cells" (16737450)


"ADH1C polymorphisms in the cis-acting elements affect transcription." (15643610)


"findings suggest that the alcohol dehydrogenase IB and IC genes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in human hepatoma cells" (16737450)

transcriptional factor;FBI1(51341)

"POZ domain of FBI1 represses transcription of ADH5." (12004059)


"The structural determination of apo, binary alcohol, and inhibitory ternary FDH complexes provides new insight into the enzyme's metal-assisted catalysis and substrate-binding properties." (12196016)









transcriptional factor;C/EBP,AP-1(3725)

"Members of two important transcription factor families, C/EBP and AP-1, bound to several sites in this promoter. " (9570155)

transcriptional factor;Sp1(6667)

"Expression of the human ADH2 gene: an unusual Sp1-binding site in the promoter of a gene expressed at high levels in liver." (1446829)

transcriptional factor;C/EBP,USF/MLTF,Sp1(6777)

"There are differences in the affinity with which some proteins are bound to altered sites including C/EBP sites, USF/MLTF sites, and the G3T site (which binds Sp1). There are also differences in the sites that are occupied, e.g. CTF/NFI-related sites." (8634148)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0008270 (F) zinc ion binding [P11766, P07327, P28332, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];
GO:0003960 (F) NADPH:quinone reductase activity [P08319 ];
GO:0051287 (F) NAD binding [P08319 ];
GO:0006066 (P) cellular alcohol metabolic process [P07327, P00326 ];
GO:0006081 (P) cellular aldehyde metabolic process [P08319 ];
GO:0005503 (F) all-trans retinal binding [P08319 ];
GO:0005829 (C) cytosol [P07327, P28332 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [P11766, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];
GO:0004031 (F) aldehyde oxidase activity [P40394 ];
GO:0004022 (F) alcohol dehydrogenase activity [P11766 ];
GO:0006069 (P) ethanol oxidation [P11766, P28332, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];
GO:0051903 (F) S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase ... [P11766 ];
GO:0042572 (P) retinol metabolic process [P08319 ];
GO:0009055 (F) electron carrier activity [P11766, P28332, P00325 ];
GO:0001523 (P) retinoid metabolic process [P40394 ];
GO:0046164 (P) alcohol catabolic process [P08319 ];
GO:0048019 (F) receptor antagonist activity [P40394 ];
GO:0019115 (F) benzaldehyde dehydrogenase activity [P08319 ];
GO:0005504 (F) fatty acid binding [P11766 ];
GO:0004024 (F) alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent [P07327, P28332, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];
GO:0045471 (P) response to ethanol [P28332, P40394 ];
GO:0035276 (F) ethanol binding [P40394 ];
GO:0010430 (P) fatty acid omega-oxidation [P40394 ];
GO:0019841 (F) retinol binding [P40394, P08319 ];
GO:0042375 (P) quinone cofactor metabolic process [P08319 ];
GO:0004745 (F) retinol dehydrogenase activity [P40394, P08319 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [P11766, P07327, P28332, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];

Tissue expression

Tissue From HPRD

Colon [00064 ];
Uterus [00064 ];
Gastrointestinal Tract [00068 ];
Fetus [00064 ];
Skin [00066 ];
Ileum [00064 ];
Testis [00064 ];
Liver [00064, 00063, 00066, 00068, 00065, 00067 ];
Placenta [00064 ];
Brain [00064 ];
Stomach [02515, 00064, 00067 ];

Tissue specificity

Preferentially expressed in stomach [P40394 ];

Stomach and liver [P28332 ];

Subcellular localization


cytoplasm [P11766, P07327, P28332, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];



P00325; P00326; P07327; P08319; P11766; P28332; P40394

Entrez Gene

124; 125; 126; 127; 128; 130; 131


00068; 00064; 00065; 00066; 02515; 00063; 00067

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min