Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

1.1.1.1

Official Name

alcohol dehydrogenase

Name from literature

alcohol dehydrogenase

Pathway from literature

alcohol oxidation

Pathway from KEGG

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450; map00980

Metabolism of Cofactors and Vitamins; Retinol metabolism; map00830

Lipid Metabolism; Fatty acid metabolism; map00071

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis; map00010

Amino Acid Metabolism; Tyrosine metabolism; map00350

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; 3-Chloroacrylic acid degradation; map00641

Lipid Metabolism; Bile acid biosynthesis; map00120

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; 1- and 2-Methylnaphthalene degradation; map00624

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450; map00982

Organisms

Human (9606)

Genome localization

4q23[130 ], 4q21-q23[124 ], 4q21-q25[128 ], 4q21-q23[125 ], 4q21-q24|4q22[127 ], 4q23-q24[131 ], 4q21-q23[126 ],

Comments

A zinc protein. Acts on primary or secondary alcohols or hemi-acetals; the animal, but not the yeast, enzyme acts also on cyclic secondary alcohols.

Rate-limiting Description

"The rate-limiting step in alcohol metabolism is the oxidation (activation) of ethanol to acetaldehyde by the alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs)." (11303599)

"Since the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver is a rate-limiting factor for ethanol metabolism in experimental animals, it is likely that the type and content of the polymorphic isoenzyme subunit encoded at ADH2, beta-subunit, and at ADH3, the gamma-subunit, are contributing factors to the genetic variability in ethanol elimination rate." (3067025)

"The rate-limiting step in oxidation is conversion of ethanol into acetaldehyde by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which has a low Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.05-0.1 g/L." (12489977)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

6667;3725;6777;51341;2624

Regulatory type

Detail

key enzyme;

"Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) is the key enzyme for elimination of acetaldehyde, an established animal carcinogen produced after drinking." (16499490)

others;

"findings suggest that the alcohol dehydrogenase IB and IC genes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in human hepatoma cells" (16737450)

transcriptional factor;"GATA-2(2624),HNF-3beta"

"GATA-2 and HNF-3beta regulate the human alcohol dehydrogenase 1A (ADH1A) gene." (16153155)

others;

"findings suggest that the alcohol dehydrogenase IB and IC genes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in human hepatoma cells" (16737450)

others;

"ADH1C polymorphisms in the cis-acting elements affect transcription." (15643610)

others;

"findings suggest that the alcohol dehydrogenase IB and IC genes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in human hepatoma cells" (16737450)

transcriptional factor;FBI1(51341)

"POZ domain of FBI1 represses transcription of ADH5." (12004059)

inhibitor;

"The structural determination of apo, binary alcohol, and inhibitory ternary FDH complexes provides new insight into the enzyme's metal-assisted catalysis and substrate-binding properties." (12196016)

phosphorylation;

P00325

phosphorylation;

P00326

phosphorylation;

P11766

phosphorylation;

P28332

transcriptional factor;C/EBP,AP-1(3725)

"Members of two important transcription factor families, C/EBP and AP-1, bound to several sites in this promoter. " (9570155)

transcriptional factor;Sp1(6667)

"Expression of the human ADH2 gene: an unusual Sp1-binding site in the promoter of a gene expressed at high levels in liver." (1446829)

transcriptional factor;C/EBP,USF/MLTF,Sp1(6777)

"There are differences in the affinity with which some proteins are bound to altered sites including C/EBP sites, USF/MLTF sites, and the G3T site (which binds Sp1). There are also differences in the sites that are occupied, e.g. CTF/NFI-related sites." (8634148)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0008270 (F) zinc ion binding [P11766, P07327, P28332, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];
GO:0003960 (F) NADPH:quinone reductase activity [P08319 ];
GO:0051287 (F) NAD binding [P08319 ];
GO:0006066 (P) cellular alcohol metabolic process [P07327, P00326 ];
GO:0006081 (P) cellular aldehyde metabolic process [P08319 ];
GO:0005503 (F) all-trans retinal binding [P08319 ];
GO:0005829 (C) cytosol [P07327, P28332 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [P11766, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];
GO:0004031 (F) aldehyde oxidase activity [P40394 ];
GO:0004022 (F) alcohol dehydrogenase activity [P11766 ];
GO:0006069 (P) ethanol oxidation [P11766, P28332, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];
GO:0051903 (F) S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase ... [P11766 ];
GO:0042572 (P) retinol metabolic process [P08319 ];
GO:0009055 (F) electron carrier activity [P11766, P28332, P00325 ];
GO:0001523 (P) retinoid metabolic process [P40394 ];
GO:0046164 (P) alcohol catabolic process [P08319 ];
GO:0048019 (F) receptor antagonist activity [P40394 ];
GO:0019115 (F) benzaldehyde dehydrogenase activity [P08319 ];
GO:0005504 (F) fatty acid binding [P11766 ];
GO:0004024 (F) alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent [P07327, P28332, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];
GO:0045471 (P) response to ethanol [P28332, P40394 ];
GO:0035276 (F) ethanol binding [P40394 ];
GO:0010430 (P) fatty acid omega-oxidation [P40394 ];
GO:0019841 (F) retinol binding [P40394, P08319 ];
GO:0042375 (P) quinone cofactor metabolic process [P08319 ];
GO:0004745 (F) retinol dehydrogenase activity [P40394, P08319 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [P11766, P07327, P28332, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];

Tissue expression

Tissue From HPRD

Colon [00064 ];
Uterus [00064 ];
Gastrointestinal Tract [00068 ];
Fetus [00064 ];
Skin [00066 ];
Ileum [00064 ];
Testis [00064 ];
Liver [00064, 00063, 00066, 00068, 00065, 00067 ];
Placenta [00064 ];
Brain [00064 ];
Stomach [02515, 00064, 00067 ];

Tissue specificity

Preferentially expressed in stomach [P40394 ];

Stomach and liver [P28332 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

cytoplasm [P11766, P07327, P28332, P00326, P40394, P08319, P00325 ];

Links

SwissProt

P00325; P00326; P07327; P08319; P11766; P28332; P40394

Entrez Gene

124; 125; 126; 127; 128; 130; 131

HPRD

00068; 00064; 00065; 00066; 02515; 00063; 00067



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min