Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

2.3.2.2

Official Name

gamma-glutamyltransferase

Name from literature

gamma glutamyl transferase

Pathway from literature

glutathione synthesis

Pathway from KEGG

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Glutathione metabolism; map00480

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Cyanoamino acid metabolism; map00460

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Selenoamino acid metabolism; map00450

Lipid Metabolism; Arachidonic acid metabolism; map00590

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; map00430

Organisms

Human (9606)

Genome localization

17p13.2[124975 ], 22q11.23[2687 ], 22q11.23[2678 ], 20q11.22[2686 ],

Rate-limiting Description

"The increase in activity of both GPX and GST corresponded with increased transcription of these enzymes, as well as the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, gamma-glutamyl transferase." (15006645)

Regulatory Information

Regulatory type

Detail

transcriptional level;

"These data suggest that the human GGT gene employs regulatory sequences and alternative splicing, and gene expression may therefore be regulated in tissue specific and cell-type-specific manners." (11168366)

post translational modification;

"Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) is a heterodimic enzyme that is generated from the precursor protein through posttranslational processing and catalyzes the hydrolysis of gamma-glutamyl bonds in gamma-glutamyl compounds such as glutathione and/or the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl group to other amino acids and peptides." (16618936)

key enzyme;

"Instead, our data demonstrate that gamma glutamyltranspeptidase is a key enzyme involved in mediating cisplatin nephrotoxicity, which potentially acts to cleave cisplatin-GSH conjugates to a toxic metabolite." (18583013#17613273#12123741)

phosphorylation;

Q9UJ14

phosphorylation;

Q9UJ14:from_uniprot:83_Phosphoserine

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0006520 (P) amino acid metabolic process [P36269, P19440 ];
GO:0008270 (F) zinc ion binding [A6NGU5, P36268 ];
GO:0019370 (P) leukotriene biosynthetic process [P36269 ];
GO:0003840 (F) gamma-glutamyltransferase activity [P19440, A6NGU5, P36269, O76032, Q6P531, Q9UJ14, P36268, O75693 ];
GO:0008415 (F) acyltransferase activity [P19440, A6NGU5, P36269, O76032, Q6P531, Q9UJ14, P36268, O75693 ];
GO:0006750 (P) glutathione biosynthetic process [P36269, Q9UJ14, Q6P531, P19440, A6NGU5, P36268 ];
GO:0016021 (C) integral to membrane [P36269, Q9UJ14, Q6P531, P19440, A6NGU5, P36268 ];
GO:0004629 (F) phospholipase C activity [A6NGU5, P36268 ];
GO:0005515 (F) protein binding [P19440 ];

Tissue expression

Tissue From HPRD

Serum [01980 ];
Kidney [01980 ];
Monocyte [01980 ];
Ubiquitous [01980 ];
Fetus [01980 ];
Lung [01980 ];
Granulocyte [01980 ];
Plasma [01980 ];
Pancreas [01980 ];
Liver [01980 ];
Placenta [01980, 00666 ];
Bile fluid [01980 ];
Brain [01980 ];

Tissue specificity

Highly expressed in fetal and adult kidney and liver [P36268 ];

Detected in fetal and adult kidney and liver, adult pancreas, stomach, intestine, placenta and lung. Isoform 3 is lung-specific. There are several other tissue-specific forms that arise from alternative promoter usage but that produce the same protein [P19440 ];

Widely expressed, but at low level, except in the airway epithelial cells. Detected in brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, testis and trachea [Q9UJ14 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

cell membrane [P36269, Q9UJ14, Q6P531, P19440, A6NGU5, P36268 ];

Disease relevance

Disease

Defects in GGT1 are a cause of glutathionuria [MIM:231950];
also known as gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase deficiency. It is an autosomal recessive disease [P19440 ];

Links

SwissProt

A6NGU5; O75693; O76032; P19440; P36268; P36269; Q6P531; Q9UJ14

Entrez Gene

124975; 2678; 2686; 2687

HPRD

01980; 00666; 07488; 08293



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min