Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

tyrosine transaminase

Name from literature

tyrosine aminotransferase

Pathway from literature

catabolic pathway of tyrosine

Pathway from KEGG

Amino Acid Metabolism; Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis; map00400

Amino Acid Metabolism; Phenylalanine metabolism; map00360

Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites; Alkaloid biosynthesis I; map00950

Amino Acid Metabolism; Methionine metabolism; map00271

Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites; Novobiocin biosynthesis; map00401

Amino Acid Metabolism; Tyrosine metabolism; map00350


Human (9606)

Genome localization

16q22.1[6898 ],


A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-Phenylalanine can act instead of L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with EC (aspartate transaminase). The three isoenzymic forms are interconverted by EC (stem bromelain) and EC (fruit bromelain). The enzyme can also catalyse the final step in the methionine-salvage pathway of Klebsiella pneumoniae [8].

Rate-limiting Description

"The liver enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT; EC catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine." (2870018)

"These results suggest that tyrosine aminotransferase is the rate limiting enzyme in the catabolism of tyrosine in premature infants.." (6123525)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type


transcriptional factor;

"We are studying the mechanisms of transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors and we focus our studies on the glucocorticoid regulation of the model tyrosine aminotransferase gene." (11420718)

key enzyme;

"Tyrosinemia II is caused by a deficiency of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase. With the deficiency of this key enzyme of tyrosine catabolism there is an increase in plasma tyrosine and then an increase in tyrosine metabolites in the urine." (6149527)

transcriptional factor;"GMEB1(10691),GMEB2(26205)"

"The factor binding to the glucocorticoid modulatory element of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene is a novel and ubiquitous heteromeric complex." (7665613)

transcriptional level;

"5' sequences direct developmental expression and hormone responsiveness of tyrosine aminotransferase in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes." (9395313)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0030170 (F) pyridoxal phosphate binding [P17735 ];
GO:0004838 (F) tyrosine transaminase activity [P17735 ];
GO:0009058 (P) biosynthetic process [P17735 ];
GO:0016847 (F) 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase ... [P17735 ];
GO:0006559 (P) L-phenylalanine catabolic process [P17735 ];
GO:0006572 (P) tyrosine catabolic process [P17735 ];

Disease relevance


Defects in TAT are the cause of tyrosinemia type 2 (TYRO2) [MIM:276600];
also known as Richner-Hanhart syndrome. TYRO2 is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine, and oculocutaneous manifestations. Typical features include palmoplantar keratosis, painful corneal ulcers, and mental retardation [P17735 ];




Entrez Gene




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  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
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