Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

3.1.1.79

Official Name

hormone-sensitive lipase

Name from literature

hormone-sensitive lipase

Pathway from literature

cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis/lipolysis/intracellular TG hydrolysis

Pathway from KEGG

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; Insulin signaling pathway; map04910

Organisms

Human (9606)

Genome localization

19q13.2[3991 ],

Comments

This enzyme is a serine hydrolase. Compared with other lipases, hormone-sensitive lipase has a uniquely broad substrate specificity. It hydrolyses all acylglycerols (triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol) [2,3,4] as well as cholesteryl esters [2,4], steroid fatty acid esters [5], retinyl esters [6] and p-nitrophenyl esters [4,7]. It exhibits a preference for the 1- or 3-ester bond of its acylglycerol substrate compared with the 2-ester bond [8]. The enzyme shows little preference for the fatty acids in the triacylglycerol, although there is some increase in activity with decreasing chain length. The enzyme activity is increased in response to hormones that elevate intracellular levels of cAMP.

Rate-limiting Description

"Translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase, the rate-limiting enzyme of lipolysis, to the lipid droplet seems to be an important step during lipolytic activation." (11246809)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

5564

Regulatory type

Detail

key enzyme;

"Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipocytes. " (16534522)

phosphorylation;

"role of cyclic GMP in natriuretic peptide-mediated phosphorylation in adipocytes" (12970365)

phosphorylation;AMPK(5564)

"AMPK is a major regulator of skeletal muscle HSL activity that can override beta-adrenergic stimulation" (15231718)

phosphorylation;

"although HSL expression and Ser(659) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle during exercise is sex specific, total muscle HSL activity measured in vitro was similar between sexes" (16822962)

phosphorylation;

"Obesity is accompanied by impaired fasting glycerol release, lower HSL protein expression, and serine phosphorylation." (18398140)

phosphorylation;

Q05469

phosphorylation;

Q05469:from_uniprot:196_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q05469:from_uniprot:853_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q05469:from_uniprot:855_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q05469:from_uniprot:950_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q05469:from_uniprot:951_Phosphoserine

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0033878 (F) hormone-sensitive lipase activity [Q05469 ];
GO:0008203 (P) cholesterol metabolic process [Q05469 ];
GO:0005886 (C) plasma membrane [Q05469 ];
GO:0005515 (F) protein binding [Q05469 ];
GO:0006468 (P) protein amino acid phosphorylation [Q05469 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

cell membrane [Q05469 ];

cytoplasm [Q05469 ];

Links

SwissProt

Q05469

Entrez Gene

3991

HPRD

01062



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  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
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