Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

arylamine N-acetyltransferase

Name from literature


Pathway from literature

melatonin synthesis

Pathway from KEGG

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Drug metabolism - other enzymes; map00983

Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites; Caffeine metabolism; map00232

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Trinitrotoluene degradation; map00633


Human (9606)

Genome localization

8p23.1-p21.3[9 ], 8p22[10 ],


Wide specificity for aromatic amines, including serotonin; also catalyses acetyl-transfer between arylamines without CoA.

Rate-limiting Description

"In our previous studies, the opioid receptors located on pinealocytes have been identified and characterized, and these receptors have been found to play a stimulatory role in melatonin synthesis by activating the rate limiting enzyme, N-acetyltransferase (NAT)." (10471401)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type


key enzyme;

"Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) biosynthesis. It is the key-enzyme responsible of the nocturnal rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland." (12943195#12622835#12465141)

regulatory enzyme;

"the role of cyclic AMP and calcium ions in the induction of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT; the key regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthetic pathway" (1664368#9437763)


"paclitaxel is an uncompetitive inhibitor to arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzyme" (11955676)


"Gypenoside inhibited N-acetylation of NAT1 gene expression and DNA adduct formation in HeLa cells." (17564315)





transcriptional level;Sp1

"Ubiquitously expressed transcripts of human NAT1 and its orthologue, murine Nat2, are initiated from promoters with conserved Sp1 elements." (16257833#15487985)

transcriptional factor;AP-1(3725),YY-1(7528)

"Identification of a minimal promoter sequence for the human N-acetyltransferase Type I gene that binds AP-1 (activator protein 1) and YY-1 (Yin and Yang 1)." (12946272)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0004060 (F) arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity [Q400J6, Q400I5, P18440, Q400I7, P11245, Q400I9 ];
GO:0005829 (C) cytosol [P18440, P11245 ];
GO:0008152 (P) metabolic process [Q400J6, Q400I5, P18440, Q400I7, P11245, Q400I9 ];

Subcellular localization


cytoplasm [P18440, P11245 ];

Disease relevance


Genetic variations in NAT2 determine N-acetylation polymorphism by a low or high NAT activity in the liver [MIM:243400]. It has been implicated in the action and toxicity of amine-containing drugs, and in the susceptibility to bladder cancer and systemic lupus erythematosus. This isozyme is responsible for this polymorphism [P11245 ];



P11245; P18440; Q400I5; Q400I7; Q400I9; Q400J6

Entrez Gene

10; 9


00149; 02000

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min