Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

aldehyde reductase

Name from literature

aldose reductase/NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase

Pathway from literature

polyol pathway/ethanologenesis of D-xylose

Pathway from KEGG

Lipid Metabolism; Glycerolipid metabolism; map00561

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Pyruvate metabolism; map00620

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Fructose and mannose metabolism; map00051

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Pentose and glucuronate interconversions; map00040

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Galactose metabolism; map00052


Human (9606)

Genome localization

7q35[231 ],


Has wide specificity.

Rate-limiting Description

"PURPOSE: Aldose reductase (ALR2) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway and is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy." (11095596)

"Aldose reductase is an NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase best known as the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway that is implicated in the complications of diabetes." (15736047)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type


regulatory enzyme;

"Recent studies from our laboratory showed that inhibition of aldose reductase, a key regulatory enzyme in the substrate flux via polyol pathway, reduces ischemic injury and improves functional and metabolic recovery after ischemia-reperfusion in hearts. " (14577653)

transcriptional level;

"Effect of a novel mutation in 5'-regulatory region of aldose reductase gene on its expression." (14515207)


"expression of cAMP-regulated AKR1B1 is decreased in adrenocortical cancer." (15181092)


"oxLDL-induced upregulation of aldose reductase in human macrophages is proinflammatory in foam cells and may represent a potential link among hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus." (18451330)







transcriptional factor;AP-1(3725),TGF-beta(7040)

"Transcription factor AP-1 regulates TGF-beta(1)-induced expression of aldose reductase in cultured human mesangial cells." (18315703)

interact with TF;SMAD1(4086)

"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network." (16189514)

interact with TF;TFE3(7030)

"Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry." (17353931)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0006950 (P) response to stress [P15121 ];
GO:0005615 (C) extracellular space [P15121 ];
GO:0005829 (C) cytosol [P15121 ];
GO:0004032 (F) aldehyde reductase activity [P15121 ];
GO:0005975 (P) carbohydrate metabolic process [P15121 ];
GO:0009055 (F) electron carrier activity [P15121 ];
GO:0005515 (F) protein binding [P15121 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [P15121 ];

Tissue expression

Tissue From HPRD

Thymus [00071 ];
Colon [00071 ];
Lens [00071 ];
Schwann cell [00071 ];
Cerebral cortex [00071 ];
Fetus [00071 ];
Aorta [00071 ];
Leukocyte [00071 ];
Testis [00071 ];
Skeletal muscle [00071 ];
Liver [00071 ];
Renal tubule [00071 ];
Red blood cell [00071 ];
Retinal pigmented epithelial cell [00071 ];
Muscle [00071 ];
Brain [00071 ];
Spleen [00071 ];
Prostate [00071 ];
Small intestine [00071 ];
Kidney [00071 ];
Smooth muscle [00071 ];
Sympathetic nervous system [00071 ];
Heart [00071 ];
Lung [00071 ];
Ovary [00071 ];
Placenta [00071 ];
Retina [00071 ];
Midbrain [00071 ];
Basal nuclei [00071 ];

Tissue specificity

Highly expressed in embryonic epithelial cells (EUE) in response to osmotic stress [P15121 ];

Subcellular localization


cytoplasm [P15121 ];

Disease relevance


In diabetes and galactosemia, increased AR activity leads to high levels of sorbitol and galactitol, respectively, in the cells of many tissues. Accumulation of sugar alcohols has been shown to cause osmotic cataracts in the lens. AR is also thought to play a key role in diabetic complications of three other target tissues, namely, nerve, kidney and retina [P15121 ];




Entrez Gene




  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min