Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

2.3.1.57

Official Name

diamine N-acetyltransferase

Name from literature

spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase

Pathway from literature

the polyamine catabolic pathway

Pathway from KEGG

Amino Acid Metabolism; Urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups; map00220

Organisms

Human (9606)

Genome localization

17p13.1[112483 ], Xp22.1[6303 ],

Comments

Acts on propane-1,3-diamine, pentane-1,5-diamine, putrescine, spermidine (forming N1- and N8-acetylspermidine), spermine, N1-acetylspermidine and N8-acetylspermidine.

Rate-limiting Description

"The original hypothesis was that analogue induction of the rate-limiting spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) provided substrate for the peroxisomal acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAO), resulting in a decrease in polyamine pools through catabolism, oxidation, and excretion of acetylated polyamines and the production of toxic aldehydes and H2O2." (16207710)

"It has been shown that the NSAID sulindac induces apoptosis and suppresses carcinogenesis, in part, by a mechanism leading to the transcriptional activation of the gene encoding SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase), a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism." (16262603)

"Initially, human polyamine catabolism was assumed to be under the control of a rate-limiting spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) that provides substrate for an acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAO)." (12827295)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

11244;3216;3219;22980;81628;7088;7157;11143;11243;4780;1457;4790

Regulatory type

Detail

transcriptional factor;"PMF-1(11243),Nrf-2(4780)"

"Characterization of the interaction between the transcription factors human polyamine modulated factor (PMF-1) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) in the transcriptional regulation of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene." (11256947)

transcriptional factor;NFkappaB(4790)

"Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that NFkappaB was indeed bound to the SSAT promoter after CHX treatment. " (16637064#9852135)

key enzyme;

"Since polyamines play critical roles in normal and neoplastic growth and in ion channel regulation, SSAT is a key enzyme in these processes." (18349109)

post translational modification;

"Differential post-transcriptional control of ornithine decarboxylase and spermidine-spermine N1-acetyltransferase by polyamines." (8706937)

phosphorylation;Casein kinase 2(1457)

"Casein kinase 2 purified from human erythrocyte cytosol has been found to phosphorylate human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) expressed as a fusion protein in E. coli and purified to homogeneity with a specific activity similar to that reported for pure human SSAT. " (8954982)

interact with TF;MYST2(11143)

"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome." (16169070)

interact with TF;TLE1(7088)

"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome." (16169070)

interact with TF;TP53(7157)

"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome." (16169070)

interact with TF;ZHX1(11244)

"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome." (16169070)

interact with TF;HOXB6(3216)

"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network." (16189514)

interact with TF;HOXB9(3219)

"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network." (16189514)

interact with TF;TCF25(22980)

"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network." (16189514)

interact with TF;TSC22D4(81628)

"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network." (16189514)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0004145 (F) diamine N-acetyltransferase activity [Q96F10, B0AZU7, P21673 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [P21673 ];
GO:0008152 (P) metabolic process [Q96F10, P21673 ];

Tissue expression

Tissue From HPRD

Prostate [02431 ];

Tissue specificity

Widely expressed [Q96F10 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

cytoplasm [P21673 ];

Disease relevance

Disease

Defects in SAT1 may be the cause of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) [MIM:308800];
also known as keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans cum ophiasi or Siemens-1 syndrome. KFSD is a rare X-linked disorder affecting the skin and the eye. Affected men show thickening of the skin of the neck, ears, and extremities, especially the palms and soles, loss of eyebrows, eyelashes and beard, thickening of the eyelids with blepharitis and ectropion, and corneal degeneration. Although most affected families are compatible with X-linked inheritance, KFSD appears to be clinically and genetically heterogeneous [P21673 ];

Links

SwissProt

B0AZU7; P21673; Q96F10

Entrez Gene

112483; 6303

HPRD

15296; 02431



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min