Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

1.14.19.1

Official Name

stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase

Name from literature

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase

Pathway from literature

monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis,oleic acid synthesis,

Pathway from KEGG

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; PPAR signaling pathway; map03320

Lipid Metabolism; Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids; map01040

Organisms

Human (9606)

Genome localization

10q24.31[6319 ], 4q21.22[79966 ],

Comments

An iron protein. The rat liver enzyme is an enzyme system involving cytochrome b5 and EC 1.6.2.2, cytochrome-b5 reductase. The ferricytochrome b5 produced is reduced by NADH and cytochrome-b5 reductase (EC 1.6.2.2).

Rate-limiting Description

"A key enzyme involved in this process is the membrane-bound stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the cellular synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids." (10484602)

"Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the cellular synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids mainly oleate (C18:1) and palmitoleate (C16:1) which are the major monounsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids, cholesterol esters, waxes, and triglycerides." (11396956)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

6720

Regulatory type

Detail

key enzyme;

"The presence of albumin in the ER activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and increases stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase (SCD) mRNA, the key enzyme in oleic acid synthesis." (12445905)

others;leptin

"Of genes identified in the liver whose expression is modulated by leptin, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 ranks at the top of the list, according to this review." (14683458)

others;"leptin,dietary factors"

"SCD4 demonstrates tissue-specific regulation by leptin and dietary factors" (12815040)

phosphorylation;

O00767

transcriptional factor;SREBP-1(6720)

"Cloning and characterization of the human stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter: transcriptional activation by sterol regulatory element binding protein and repression by polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol." (18982375#11414710)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0016021 (C) integral to membrane [Q86SK9, O00767 ];
GO:0004768 (F) stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase activity [Q86SK9, O00767 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [Q86SK9, O00767 ];
GO:0005506 (F) iron ion binding [Q86SK9, O00767 ];
GO:0006633 (P) fatty acid biosynthetic process [Q86SK9, O00767 ];
GO:0005789 (C) endoplasmic reticulum membrane [Q86SK9, O00767 ];

Tissue expression

Tissue From HPRD

Spinal cord [04941 ];
Fetus [09756, 04941 ];
Skeletal muscle [09756, 04941 ];
Liver [09756, 04941 ];
Retinal pigmented epithelial cell [04941 ];
Brain [09756, 04941 ];
Keratinocyte [04941 ];
Kidney [09756, 04941 ];
Lung [09756, 04941 ];
Heart [09756, 04941 ];
Hair [04941 ];
Pancreas [09756, 04941 ];
Skin [04941 ];
Trachea [04941 ];
Cerebellum [04941 ];
Placenta [09756, 04941 ];
Retina [04941 ];
Sebaceous gland [04941 ];

Tissue specificity

Detected in fetal brain, and at lower levels in fetal kidney. Detected in adult brain and pancreas, and at lower levels in kidney and lung [Q86SK9 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

endoplasmic reticulum [Q86SK9, O00767 ];

Links

SwissProt

O00767; Q86SK9

Entrez Gene

6319; 79966

HPRD

09756; 04941



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min