Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

2.6.1.16

Official Name

glutamine---fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (isomerizing)

Name from literature

glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase

Pathway from literature

hexosamine synthesis

Pathway from KEGG

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Aminosugars metabolism; map00530

Amino Acid Metabolism; Glutamate metabolism; map00251

Organisms

Human (9606)

Genome localization

5q34-q35[9945 ], 2p13[2673 ],

Comments

Although the overall reaction is that of a transferase, the mechanism involves the formation of ketimine between fructose 6-phosphate and a 6-amino group from a lysine residue at the active site, which is subsequently displaced by ammonia (transamidination).

Rate-limiting Description

"We hypothesized that variants of GFPT1 encoding glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the rate limiting enzyme in this pathway, could increase GFPT1 gene expression and thus susceptibility to diabetes and diabetic nephropathy." (15308130)

"Glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA) is rate-limiting for hexosamine biosynthesis, while a UDP-GlcNAc beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (O-GlcNAc transferase) catalyses final O-linked attachment of GlcNAc to serine and threonine residues on intracellular proteins." (9028721)

Regulatory Information

Regulatory type

Detail

regulatory enzyme;

"The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of whether glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (the first and key regulatory enzyme in hexosamine synthesis) is present for endothelial glucosamine synthesis." (11270676)

phosphorylation;

"Identification of a novel serine phosphorylation site in human glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase isoform 1." (17941647)

transcriptional level;

"Regulation of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase gene transcription by epidermal growth factor and glucose" (7789306)

phosphorylation;

O94808

phosphorylation;

Q06210

phosphorylation;

O94808:from_uniprot:245_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q06210:from_uniprot:261_Phosphoserine

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0016051 (P) carbohydrate biosynthetic process [O94808, Q06210 ];
GO:0005529 (F) sugar binding [O94808, Q06210 ];
GO:0006541 (P) glutamine metabolic process [O94808, Q06210 ];
GO:0004360 (F) glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase... [O94808, Q06210 ];
GO:0006112 (P) energy reserve metabolic process [O94808, Q06210 ];
GO:0006002 (P) fructose 6-phosphate metabolic process [O94808, Q06210 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [O94808, Q06210 ];

Tissue expression

Tissue From HPRD

Thymus [04842 ];
Hippocampus [04842 ];
Renal tubular epithelium [00702 ];
Substantia nigra [04842 ];
Occipital lobe [04842 ];
Corpus callosum [04842 ];
Cerebral cortex [04842 ];
Spinal cord [04842 ];
Putamen [04842 ];
Caudate nucleus [04842 ];
Testis [04842 ];
Islets of Langerhans [00702 ];
Skeletal muscle [00702, 04842 ];
Brain [04842 ];
Prostate [04842 ];
Vascular system [00702 ];
Small intestine [04842 ];
Hypothalamus [04842 ];
Kidney [04842 ];
Thalamus [04842 ];
Medulla oblongata [04842 ];
Lung [04842 ];
Heart [00702, 04842 ];
Pancreas [04842 ];
Ovary [04842 ];
Amygdala [04842 ];
Placenta [04842 ];
Cerebellum [04842 ];
Adipocyte [00702 ];
Subthalamic nucleus [04842 ];
Frontal lobe [04842 ];

Tissue specificity

Isoform 1 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Not expressed in brain. Seems to be selectively expressed in striated muscle [Q06210 ];

Highest levels of expression in heart, placenta, and spinal cord [O94808 ];

Links

SwissProt

O94808; Q06210

Entrez Gene

2673; 9945

HPRD

00702; 04842



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  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min