Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

retinal dehydrogenase

Name from literature

retinal dehydrogenase

Pathway from literature

the metabolism of retinal to retinoic acid

Pathway from KEGG

Metabolism of Cofactors and Vitamins; Retinol metabolism; map00830


Mouse (10090)

Genome localization

9 D|9 42.0 cM[19378 ], 19 B|19 20.0 cM[26358 ], 19 B|19 12.0 cM[11668 ],


A metalloflavoprotein (FAD). Acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of retinal.

Rate-limiting Description

"Under conditions in which retinal dehydrogenase activity is rate-limiting for the metabolism of retinal to retinoic acid, its induction after phenobarbital or ethanol administration may contribute to hepatic vitamin A depletion." (2910311)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type










transcriptional factor;LXRalpha(22259),LXRbeta(22260),SREBP-1c(20787)

"Further, cholesterol metabolites, predominantly the oxysterols, the natural ligands for liver X receptor (LXR), induced these genes via upregulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) that bound to the regulatory regions of these genes. Knockdown of LXRalpha/beta or SREBP-1c downregulated the expression of RALDH genes, which could be rescued by re-expressing SREBP-1c, suggesting SREBP-1c as a direct positive regulator for these genes." (16763553#11386761)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0048384 (P) retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway [Q62148 ];
GO:0031016 (P) pancreas development [Q62148 ];
GO:0048048 (P) embryonic eye morphogenesis [P24549 ];
GO:0042573 (P) retinoic acid metabolic process [Q62148, P24549 ];
GO:0002072 (P) optic cup morphogenesis involved in camera-... [P24549 ];
GO:0008284 (P) positive regulation of cell proliferation [Q62148 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [Q62148, P24549 ];
GO:0035115 (P) embryonic forelimb morphogenesis [Q62148 ];
GO:0001758 (F) retinal dehydrogenase activity [Q62148, P24549 ];
GO:0003007 (P) heart morphogenesis [Q62148 ];
GO:0042572 (P) retinol metabolic process [P24549 ];
GO:0043010 (P) camera-type eye development [Q62148 ];
GO:0009954 (P) proximal/distal pattern formation [Q62148 ];
GO:0016331 (P) morphogenesis of embryonic epithelium [Q62148 ];
GO:0043065 (P) positive regulation of apoptosis [P24549 ];
GO:0009952 (P) anterior/posterior pattern formation [Q62148 ];
GO:0030182 (P) neuron differentiation [Q62148 ];
GO:0014032 (P) neural crest cell development [Q62148 ];
GO:0030902 (P) hindbrain development [Q62148 ];
GO:0004028 (F) 3-chloroallyl aldehyde dehydrogenase activity [Q62148, P24549 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [Q62148, P24549 ];
GO:0009855 (P) determination of bilateral symmetry [Q62148 ];
GO:0030900 (P) forebrain development [Q62148 ];

Subcellular localization


cytoplasm [Q62148, P24549 ];



P24549; Q62148

Entrez Gene

11668; 19378; 26358

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min