Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)

Name from literature

3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A

Pathway from literature

cholesterol synthesis/the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway

Pathway from KEGG

Lipid Metabolism; Biosynthesis of steroids; map00100


Mouse (10090)

Genome localization

13 D1|13 49.0 cM[15357 ],


The enzyme is inactivated by EC {[hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] kinase} and reactivated by EC {[hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]-phosphatase}.

Rate-limiting Description

"The rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (EC, is lowered to 45% 48 hr after removal of theophylline." (6935624)

"Mevinolin is known to inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (EC, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis." (1311272)

"We also observed that DnaJA4 overexpression increased the activity and the protein content of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate limiting enzyme in this pathway." (16950652)

"The microsomal enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis and is highly regulated by a variety of factors." (15992608)

"Some of these oxidation products are known to be generated spontaneously from cholesterol, which in itself is not affecting the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (EC" (6973393)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type




transcriptional factor;FXRalpha(20186)

"In addition to increasing hepatic Insig-2 protein levels in wild-type mice, FXRalpha activation also reduced lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase mRNA levels and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase protein levels." (17440045)

transcriptional factor;"nuclear receptors liver receptor homologue-1,small heterodimer partner"

"Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase promoter by nuclear receptors liver receptor homologue-1 and small heterodimer partner." (16282330)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0050661 (F) NADP binding [Q01237 ];
GO:0008299 (P) isoprenoid biosynthetic process [Q01237 ];
GO:0043407 (P) negative regulation of MAP kinase activity [Q01237 ];
GO:0005778 (C) peroxisomal membrane [Q01237 ];
GO:0009790 (P) embryonic development [Q01237 ];
GO:0006695 (P) cholesterol biosynthetic process [Q01237 ];
GO:0005789 (C) endoplasmic reticulum membrane [Q01237 ];
GO:0015936 (P) coenzyme A metabolic process [Q01237 ];
GO:0016021 (C) integral to membrane [Q01237 ];
GO:0004420 (F) hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)... [Q01237 ];
GO:0005792 (C) microsome [Q01237 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [Q01237 ];
GO:0008542 (P) visual learning [Q01237 ];

Subcellular localization


endoplasmic reticulum [Q01237 ];

peroxisome [Q01237 ];




Entrez Gene


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  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min