Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

glutamate---cysteine ligase

Name from literature

gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase(gamma-GCShs)

Pathway from literature

glutathione synthesis

Pathway from KEGG

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Glutathione metabolism; map00480

Amino Acid Metabolism; Glutamate metabolism; map00251


Mouse (10090)

Genome localization

9 D-E|9 42.0 cM[14629 ],


Can use L-aminohexanoate in place of glutamate.

Rate-limiting Description

"Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which synthesizes gamma-glutamyl-cysteine (gamma-GC), is the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis." (16081425)

"Glutamate cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of glutathione, represents an important component of chemoprevention paradigms." (14500406)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type


transcriptional level;"TNF-alpha(21926),lens epithelium-derived growth factor(101739)"

"Results suggest that TNF-alpha elevates the expression of lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) and that LEDGF is one of the transactivators of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy subunit gene." (16403949)


"Results of this study suggest that mechanisms of modulation of eukaryotic GCL enzymes may include specific binding of ligands such as pyridine dinucleotide phosphates and reversible protein phosphorylation." (16324789)

transcriptional level;TGFbeta1

"Here, we demonstrate that TGFbeta1-induced apoptosis in the TAMH murine hepatocyte cell line is accompanied by both the cleavage and loss of the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLC) and the down-regulation of GCLC gene expression resulting in a reduction in GCL activity and depletion of intracellular GSH." (12824300)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0000287 (F) magnesium ion binding [P97494 ];
GO:0043531 (F) ADP binding [P97494 ];
GO:0051900 (P) regulation of mitochondrial depolarization [P97494 ];
GO:0050662 (F) coenzyme binding [P97494 ];
GO:0046685 (P) response to arsenic [P97494 ];
GO:0005829 (C) cytosol [P97494 ];
GO:0006979 (P) response to oxidative stress [P97494 ];
GO:0009408 (P) response to heat [P97494 ];
GO:0019852 (P) L-ascorbic acid metabolic process [P97494 ];
GO:0017109 (C) glutamate-cysteine ligase complex [P97494 ];
GO:0045454 (P) cell redox homeostasis [P97494 ];
GO:0004357 (F) glutamate-cysteine ligase activity [P97494 ];
GO:0006536 (P) glutamate metabolic process [P97494 ];
GO:0031397 (P) negative regulation of protein ubiquitination [P97494 ];
GO:0050880 (P) regulation of blood vessel size [P97494 ];
GO:0009410 (P) response to xenobiotic stimulus [P97494 ];
GO:0016595 (F) glutamate binding [P97494 ];
GO:0046982 (F) protein heterodimerization activity [P97494 ];
GO:0032436 (P) positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquiti... [P97494 ];
GO:0009725 (P) response to hormone stimulus [P97494 ];
GO:0006750 (P) glutathione biosynthetic process [P97494 ];
GO:0016481 (P) negative regulation of transcription [P97494 ];
GO:0006916 (P) anti-apoptosis [P97494 ];
GO:0006534 (P) cysteine metabolic process [P97494 ];




Entrez Gene


  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min