Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

2.5.1.18

Official Name

glutathione transferase

Name from literature

glutathione s transferase

Pathway from literature

arsenic biotransformation

Pathway from KEGG

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Glutathione metabolism; map00480

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450; map00980

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450; map00982

Organisms

Rat (10116)

Genome localization

8q31[24422 ], 4q44[171341 ], 20p12[29487 ], 9q13[24421 ], 2q34[81869 ], 2q34[24424 ], 1q42[24426 ], 4q23[297029 ], 2q34[57298 ], 2q34[64352 ], 20p12[25260 ], 2q26[295037 ],

Comments

A group of enzymes of broad specificity. R may be an aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic group; X may be a sulfate, nitrile or halide group. Also catalyses the addition of aliphatic epoxides and arene oxides to glutathione, the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrile, certain isomerization reactions and disulfide interchange.

Rate-limiting Description

"RT-PCR data showed that the mRNA levels of gammaGCS, the rate-limiting enzyme of gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH) synthesis, were increased by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; the mRNA levels of GPx, GR, and GST did not alter in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; and 6-OHDA increased the mRNA levels and the activity of gammaGT after treatment for 48 h, which induced a decrease in GSx levels, despite the up-regulation of gammaGCS after exposure to 6-OHDA for 48 h." (15960885)

"gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of glutathione, a known scavenger of electrophiles and reactive oxygen species (ROS)." (10751553)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

83619;24253;24252

Regulatory type

Detail

phosphorylation;

P04905

phosphorylation;

P04905:from_uniprot:23_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

P04905:from_uniprot:33_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

P04906:from_uniprot:109_Phosphotyrosine

transcriptional factor;"C/EBP-beta(24253),Nrf2(83619)"

"Ceramide inhibits C/EBP-beta or Nrf2 activation, which contributes to repression of GSTA2 gene transactivation.""...ceramide inhibition of... transcription factors contributes to the repression of the GSTA2 gene transactivation.""" (15319326)

transcriptional factor;"Nrf2(83619),C/EBP beta(24253)"

"dexamethasone antagonizes C/EBPbeta- and Nrf2-mediated GSTA2 gene induction via ligand-GR binding to the GRE, and steroid-mediated GSTA2 repression involves inactivation of C/EBPbeta and Nrf2 by SMRT recruited to steroid-GR complex" (15870285)

transcriptional factor;"C/EBP alpha(24252),C/EBP beta(24253)"

"C/EBP alpha and beta are involved in glucocorticoid-dependent repression of GSTA2 gene expression" (17786629)

transcriptional factor;C/EBP alpha(24252)

"Expression of GST-P gene is down-regulated by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha in normal liver." (16407263)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0042493 (P) response to drug [Q498T5, Q9JLX3 ];
GO:0006559 (P) L-phenylalanine catabolic process [P57113 ];
GO:0005829 (C) cytosol [Q498T5, Q9JLX3, Q63232 ];
GO:0006572 (P) tyrosine catabolic process [P57113 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [P04904, Q9Z339, Q01579, P30713, Q9Z1B2, P04905, P08010, P04903, P46418, P00502, P14942, Q6AXV9, P08009, P57113, Q6AXY0, Q4V8E6 ];
GO:0015035 (F) protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity [P24473 ];
GO:0008152 (P) metabolic process [P14942, P04904, Q9Z339, Q7M0C0, Q6AXV9, P08009, Q6AXY0, P04906, Q4FZZ3, Q9Z1B2, Q7M0F7, P08010, Q9WU21, P04903, P00502, P46418 ];
GO:0007608 (P) sensory perception of smell [P04905, P08010 ];
GO:0005783 (C) endoplasmic reticulum [P08011 ];
GO:0004364 (F) glutathione transferase activity [P04904, Q9Z339, Q01579, Q7M0B6, Q7M0C0, Q7M0B7, P30713, Q9JLX3, Q4FZZ3, Q9Z1B2, P04905, P08010, P08011, Q9WU21, Q498T5, P24473, P04903, P46418, P00502, P14942, Q7M0F1, Q6AXV9, P08009, P57113, Q6AXY0, P04906, Q7M0F7, Q4V8E6, Q63232 ];
GO:0043295 (F) glutathione binding [Q498T5, Q9JLX3, Q63232 ];
GO:0042178 (P) xenobiotic catabolic process [Q498T5, Q9JLX3, Q63232 ];
GO:0050896 (P) response to stimulus [P04905, P08010 ];
GO:0005759 (C) mitochondrial matrix [P24473 ];
GO:0006749 (P) glutathione metabolic process [P04905, P30713 ];
GO:0005792 (C) microsome [P08011 ];
GO:0005634 (C) nucleus [P30713 ];
GO:0008144 (F) drug binding [Q498T5, Q9JLX3, Q63232 ];
GO:0016034 (F) maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity [P57113 ];
GO:0005640 (C) nuclear outer membrane [Q498T5, Q9JLX3, Q63232 ];
GO:0005741 (C) mitochondrial outer membrane [P08011 ];
GO:0030288 (C) outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space [P24473 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

mitochondrion [P08011, P24473 ];

endoplasmic reticulum [P08011 ];

nucleus [P30713 ];

microsome [P08011 ];

membrane [P08011 ];

cytoplasm [P14942, P04904, Q9Z339, Q01579, P30713, P08009, P57113, Q6AXY0, Q9Z1B2, P04905, P08010, Q4V8E6, P04903, P46418, P00502 ];

Links

SwissProt

P00502; P04903; P04904; P04905; P04906; P08009; P08010; P08011; P14942; P24473; P30713; P46418; P57113; Q01579; Q498T5; Q4FZZ3; Q4V8E6; Q63232; Q6AXV9; Q6AXY0; Q7M0B6; Q7M0B7; Q7M0C0; Q7M0F1; Q7M0F7; Q9JLX3; Q9WU21; Q9Z1B2; Q9Z339

Entrez Gene

171341; 24421; 24422; 24424; 24426; 25260; 29487; 295037; 297029; 57298; 64352; 81869



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min