Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

2.4.1.11

Official Name

glycogen(starch) synthase

Name from literature

glycogen synthase

Pathway from literature

nonoxidative pathway/glycogen synthesis of skeletal muscle

Pathway from KEGG

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; Insulin signaling pathway; map04910

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Starch and sucrose metabolism; map00500

Organisms

Mouse (10090)

Genome localization

7 B4|7 23.0 cM[14936 ], 6 G2[232493 ],

Comments

The accepted name varies according to the source of the enzyme and the nature of its synthetic product (cf. EC 2.4.1.1, phosphorylase). Glycogen synthase from animal tissues is a complex of a catalytic subunit and the protein glycogenin. The enzyme requires glucosylated glycogenin as a primer; this is the reaction product of EC 2.4.1.186 (glycogenin glucosyltransferase). A similar enzyme utilizes ADP-glucose (EC 2.4.1.21, starch synthase).

Rate-limiting Description

"The enzymatic activity of glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis, was significantly lower in livers of knockout mice than in livers from wild-type controls on embryonic day 18 and postnatal day 0." (10067873)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

19015;19016;19013

Regulatory type

Detail

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:11_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:640_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:644_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:648_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:652_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:656_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:697_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:710_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P54859:from_uniprot:8_Phosphoserine; by PKA

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:11_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:6_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:626_Phosphothreonine

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:641_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:645_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:649_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:653_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:657_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q8VCB3:from_uniprot:8_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4:from_uniprot:11_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4:from_uniprot:641_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4:from_uniprot:645_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4:from_uniprot:649_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4:from_uniprot:653_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4:from_uniprot:657_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4:from_uniprot:698_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q9Z1E4:from_uniprot:8_Phosphoserine; by PKA

phosphorylation;

"In hearts from mPDK1-/- or double GSK3alpha/GSK3beta knockin mice, insulin failed to stimulate the activity of glycogen synthase or induce its dephosphorylation at residues that are phosphorylated by GSK3." (15961082)

transcriptional factor;PPARalpha(19013),PPARbeta,PPARdelta(19015),PPARgamma(19016)

"Here, we show that Gys-2 is a direct target gene of PPARalpha,PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma" (17437057)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0005978 (P) glycogen biosynthetic process [P54859, Q9Z1E4, Q8VCB3 ];
GO:0005829 (C) cytosol [Q8VCB3 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [P54859, Q9Z1E4 ];
GO:0043265 (C) ectoplasm [Q8VCB3 ];
GO:0030864 (C) cortical actin cytoskeleton [Q8VCB3 ];
GO:0009749 (P) response to glucose stimulus [Q8VCB3 ];
GO:0004373 (F) glycogen (starch) synthase activity [P54859, Q9Z1E4, Q8VCB3 ];
GO:0007507 (P) heart development [P54859, Q9Z1E4 ];
GO:0005625 (C) soluble fraction [Q8VCB3 ];
GO:0016234 (C) inclusion body [P54859, Q9Z1E4 ];
GO:0005626 (C) insoluble fraction [Q8VCB3 ];
GO:0005515 (F) protein binding [Q9Z1E4 ];

Links

SwissProt

P54859; Q8VCB3; Q9Z1E4

Entrez Gene

14936; 232493



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min