Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP)

Name from literature

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP)

Pathway from literature


Pathway from KEGG

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; Insulin signaling pathway; map04910

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; Adipocytokine signaling pathway; map04920

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Pyruvate metabolism; map00620

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; PPAR signaling pathway; map03320

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Citrate cycle (TCA cycle); map00020


Rat (10116)

Genome localization

3q42[362282 ], 15p13[361042 ],


ITP can act as phosphate donor.

Rate-limiting Description

"Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis in the liver." (10556529)

"Here we show that the coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is required for cAMP-mediated activation of rate-limiting gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; EC and glucose-6-phosphatase genes." (16330542)

"Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis, is primarily regulated at the level of gene transcription." (8567635)

"Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis." (8971075)

"Effects of endurance training on the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, were studied in the obese Zucker rats." (16458327)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type


transcriptional factor;PPAR-gamma(25664)/RXR

"Expression of the rat PEPCK gene in adipose tissue requires a PPAR-gamma/RXR binding site located 1 kbp upstream of the promoter. Similar elements are in the human and mouse gene." (10224131)

transcriptional factor;"SREBP-1c(78968),Sp1(24790)"

"transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in the liver is regulated by SREBP-1c and Sp1" (14744869)

transcriptional factor;"CREB(81646),C/EBP"

"PEPCK transcription induced by protein kinase A is regulated by CREB and C/EBP." (15604115)

transcriptional factor;SHARP-2(79431)

"SHARP-2 is a potential repressor of PEPCK gene expression" (15733865)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0030145 (F) manganese ion binding [P07379 ];
GO:0000287 (F) magnesium ion binding [P07379 ];
GO:0006094 (P) gluconeogenesis [P07379 ];
GO:0005525 (F) GTP binding [P07379 ];
GO:0031406 (F) carboxylic acid binding [P07379 ];
GO:0046327 (P) glycerol biosynthetic process from pyruvate [P07379 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [P07379 ];
GO:0004613 (F) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) act... [P07379 ];
GO:0032868 (P) response to insulin stimulus [P07379 ];
GO:0042593 (P) glucose homeostasis [P07379 ];

Subcellular localization


cytoplasm [P07379 ];




Entrez Gene

361042; 362282

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min