Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase

Name from literature


Pathway from literature

the production of prostanoids/prostaglandin synthesis

Pathway from KEGG

Lipid Metabolism; Arachidonic acid metabolism; map00590


Mouse (10090)

Genome localization

2 B|2 29.0 cM[19224 ], 1 H1|1 76.2 cM[19225 ],


This enzyme acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase.

Rate-limiting Description

"Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins." (16331615)

"We investigated the effect of MG132 on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of PGE(2), using macrophage cell line, Raw264.7." (16516846)

"Administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in normal aging populations, an effect that may occur from inhibition of the cyclooxygenases, the rate-limiting enzymes in the formation of prostaglandins." (16753269)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type








transcriptional factor;Sp3(20687)

"Conclude that GSK-3 inhibitors block corticosterone-induced COX-1 gene expression via a mechanism beyond glucocorticoid receptors and Sp3 transcription factor." (18584335)

transcriptional factor;"C/EBP(12606),Atranscriptional factor/CREB(12912)"

"C/EBP and Atranscriptional factor/CREB as the major transcriptional regulators of basal expression of COX-2 in these lung tumor-derived cell lines" (12130685)

transcriptional factor;CREB(12912)

"Data show that the ability of Tpl2 to regulate COX-2 expression depends on ERK signals that activate p90Rsk and Msk1, which in turn phosphorylate CREB, a key regulator of COX-2 transcription." (12234923)

transcriptional factor;"USF1/-2,CREB(12912)"

"Data show that USF1/-2 and CREB transcription factors binding to the cyclooxygenase-2 promoter induced H. pylori-dependent cox-2 transcription." (14531897)

transcriptional factor;PU.1(20375)

"the cyclooxygenase-2 gene is transcriptionally regulated by PU.1" (14966110)

transcriptional factor;"C/EBP(12606),AhR(11622),CREB(12912)"

"three sites are essential for basal COX-2 promoter activity: 1) CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), 2) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and 3) cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)" (15213229)

transcriptional factor;CREB(12912)

"The main signaling pathway for toxin A induction of human COX-2 involves ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK, MSK-1, CREB, and Atranscriptional factor-1" (15767259)

transcriptional factor;CREB(12912)

"CREB couples status epilepticus to COX-2 expression" (17029965)

transcriptional factor;"C/EBP(12606),CREB(12912)"

"These results provide evidence that Rd activated C/EBP and CREB, and that the activation of C/EBP and CREB appears to be essential for induction of COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells." (17524357)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0042640 (P) anagen [Q05769 ];
GO:0016702 (F) oxidoreductase activity, acting on single d... [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0020037 (F) heme binding [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0005506 (F) iron ion binding [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0006979 (P) response to oxidative stress [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0005789 (C) endoplasmic reticulum membrane [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0004601 (F) peroxidase activity [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0005792 (C) microsome [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0030216 (P) keratinocyte differentiation [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0001516 (P) prostaglandin biosynthetic process [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0004666 (F) prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [Q05769, P22437 ];
GO:0008217 (P) regulation of blood pressure [Q05769, P22437 ];

Subcellular localization


endoplasmic reticulum [Q05769, P22437 ];

microsome [Q05769, P22437 ];

membrane [Q05769, P22437 ];



P22437; Q05769

Entrez Gene

19224; 19225

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min