Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase

Name from literature


Pathway from literature

the production of prostanoids/prostaglandin synthesis

Pathway from KEGG

Lipid Metabolism; Arachidonic acid metabolism; map00590


Rat (10116)

Genome localization

13q21[29527 ], 3p11[24693 ],


This enzyme acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase.

Rate-limiting Description

"There was no significant difference in cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and COX-2 mRNA level between BRF and NRF, indicating that the change in PGE2 production was independent of COX, a rate-limiting enzyme for the production of PGE2." (10365086)

"One mechanism proposed to explain this relationship is modulation by dietary fat, of mammary tumor eicosanoid levels through action at the rate limiting enzyme in eicosanoid synthesis, cyclooxygenase (COX)." (10024686)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type






transcriptional factor;"proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha(24835),interleukin-1"

"The induction of this enzyme in rat spinal cord injury is mediated by proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1." (12664616)

transcriptional factor;nuclear factor kappa B(81736)

"Short ethanol treatment (100 mM) is able to up-regulate both COX-2 and iNOS expression, and these effects are regulated via nuclear factor kappa B." (15094475)

transcriptional factor;

"Ang II-dependent transcriptional activation of the COX-2 promoter was dependent on activation of small GTPases and p38(MAPK) and on Ca2+ signaling via the cAMP-responsive element/activating transcription factor cis-acting element" (15525649)

transcriptional factor;"HIF1alpha(29560),CREB(81646)"

"Cardiac remodelling hinders activation of cyclooxygenase-2, diminishing protection by delayed pharmacological preconditioning: role of HIF1 alpha and CREB." (18218685)

transcriptional factor;CREB(81646)

"in intestinal epithelial cells, Ang II-dependent activation of the COX-2 promoter is mediated primarily through Gq/11 signaling via a PAK/MKK6/p38beta/CREB signaling cascade" (18515110)


"briefly removing glucose from cultured cardiac fibroblasts induces COX-2 and HO-1 expression via generation of ROS and p38 MAPK phosphorylation" (15158123)


"tyrosine phosphorylation of CUG-binding protein 2 is an important underlying mechanism for the ability of Platelet-derived growth factor receptor/c-Src signaling to control the stability of COX-2 mRNA" (17855367)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0016702 (F) oxidoreductase activity, acting on single d... [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0020037 (F) heme binding [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0005506 (F) iron ion binding [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0006979 (P) response to oxidative stress [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0005789 (C) endoplasmic reticulum membrane [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0004601 (F) peroxidase activity [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0005634 (C) nucleus [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0005792 (C) microsome [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0001516 (P) prostaglandin biosynthetic process [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0004666 (F) prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [P35355, Q63921 ];
GO:0008217 (P) regulation of blood pressure [P35355, Q63921 ];

Subcellular localization


endoplasmic reticulum [P35355, Q63921 ];

microsome [P35355, Q63921 ];

membrane [P35355, Q63921 ];



P35355; Q63921

Entrez Gene

24693; 29527

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min