Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

6.2.1.3

Official Name

long-chain-fatty-acid---CoA ligase

Name from literature

arachidonyl coA synthetase

Pathway from literature

esterification of arachidonic acid by many human cells

Pathway from KEGG

Lipid Metabolism; Fatty acid metabolism; map00071

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; Adipocytokine signaling pathway; map04920

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; PPAR signaling pathway; map03320

Organisms

Rat (10116)

Genome localization

1q55[94340 ], 10q22[117243 ], Xq14[113976 ], 16q11[25288 ], 9q33[114024 ],

Comments

Acts on a wide range of long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, but the enzymes from different tissues show some variation in specificity. The liver enzyme acts on acids from C6 to C20; that from brain shows high activity up to C24.

Rate-limiting Description

"These data indicate that the HETEs and other 20 carbon fatty acid substrates probably compete for activity of a specific arachidonyl-CoA synthetase, which is the first and rate-limiting step for esterification of arachidonic acid by many human cells." (1769731)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

25747

Regulatory type

Detail

phosphorylation;

P18163

phosphorylation;

Q924N5

phosphorylation;

P18163:from_uniprot:85_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

Q63151:from_uniprot:593_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q924N5:from_uniprot:132_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

Q924N5:from_uniprot:135_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

Q924N5:from_uniprot:136_Phosphotyrosine

phosphorylation;

Q924N5:from_uniprot:655_Phosphotyrosine

transcriptional factor;PPAR(25747),retinoid X receptor

"Unilateral deletion and site-directed mutagenesis identified a peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR)-responsive element (PPRE) mediating the responsiveness to fibrates and fatty acids. This ACS PPRE contains three imperfect half sites spaced by 1 and 3 oligonucleotides and binds PPAR.retinoid X receptor heterodimers in gel retardation assays. " (7642600)

transcriptional level;PPARalpha

"These results suggest that the increased supply of fatty acids to liver in diabetic state stimulates the expression of PPAR-alpha and its target genes responsible for the metabolism of fatty acids." (10391144)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0000287 (F) magnesium ion binding [O35547, O88813, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];
GO:0016020 (C) membrane [A1L1K7 ];
GO:0007275 (P) multicellular organismal development [A1L1K7 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [A1L1K7 ];
GO:0030154 (P) cell differentiation [A1L1K7 ];
GO:0016021 (C) integral to membrane [O88813, P97524, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];
GO:0007283 (P) spermatogenesis [A1L1K7 ];
GO:0005783 (C) endoplasmic reticulum [Q924N5 ];
GO:0005778 (C) peroxisomal membrane [O88813, P97524, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];
GO:0004467 (F) long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase activity [P97524, A1L1K7, P33124, Q924N5, P18163, O35547, O88813, Q63151 ];
GO:0005789 (C) endoplasmic reticulum membrane [O88813, P97524, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];
GO:0031410 (C) cytoplasmic vesicle [Q924N5 ];
GO:0006631 (P) fatty acid metabolic process [O35547, O88813, P97524, A1L1K7, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];
GO:0001676 (P) long-chain fatty acid metabolic process [Q924N5 ];
GO:0005792 (C) microsome [O88813, P33124, Q924N5, P18163, Q63151 ];
GO:0031957 (F) very-long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase activity [Q924N5 ];
GO:0005741 (C) mitochondrial outer membrane [O88813, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];
GO:0000038 (P) very-long-chain fatty acid metabolic process [Q924N5 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

mitochondrion [O88813, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];

cell membrane [A1L1K7 ];

endoplasmic reticulum [O88813, P97524, P33124, Q924N5, P18163, Q63151 ];

peroxisome [O88813, P97524, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];

microsome [O88813, P33124, Q924N5, P18163, Q63151 ];

membrane [O88813, P97524, P33124, P18163, Q63151 ];

cytoplasm [A1L1K7, Q924N5 ];

Links

SwissProt

A1L1K7; O35547; O88813; P18163; P33124; P97524; Q63151; Q924N5

Entrez Gene

113976; 114024; 117243; 25288; 94340



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min