Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

glutamate decarboxylase

Name from literature

glutamate decarboxylase

Pathway from literature

gama-amino butrylic acid (GABA) production

Pathway from KEGG

Amino Acid Metabolism; Glutamate metabolism; map00251

Human Diseases; Metabolic Disorders; Type I diabetes mellitus; map04940

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; beta-Alanine metabolism; map00410

Amino Acid Metabolism; Alanine and aspartate metabolism; map00252

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Butanoate metabolism; map00650

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; map00430


Mouse (10090)

Genome localization

2 A3|2 9.0 cM[14417 ], 2 D|2 43.0 cM[14415 ],


A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, 3-sulfino-L-alanine and L-aspartate.

Rate-limiting Description

"Neuronal structures in the barrel region of the mouse primary somatosensory cortex containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were identified by an immunocytochemical method, using an antiserum to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of GABA." (3725189)

"Two polyclonal antibodies were applied in succession, one directed against the midregion and COOH terminus of the 22-amino acid polypeptide motilin and the other against glutamic acid decarboxylase (glutamate decarboxylase; L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lyase, EC, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter GABA." (7038682)

"To test the hypothesis that altered GABA synthesis within nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) neurons regulates absence seizures, we analyzed and quantitated the distribution of GAD(67) and GAD(65), the rate-limiting enzymes of GABA synthesis, in thalamic nuclei from the Cacnb4lh model of absence seizures and non-epileptic (+/+) controls." (10407195)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type










transcriptional factor;IkappaBalpha(18035),SR

"This neuronal pattern of IkappaBalpha-SR expression leads to decreased expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), the enzyme required for synthesis of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in GABAergic interneurons." (16980629)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0030424 (C) axon [P48320, P48318 ];
GO:0019752 (P) carboxylic acid metabolic process [P48318 ];
GO:0030054 (C) cell junction [P48320 ];
GO:0005739 (C) mitochondrion [P48318 ];
GO:0004351 (F) glutamate decarboxylase activity [P48320, P48318 ];
GO:0042136 (P) neurotransmitter biosynthetic process [P48320, P48318 ];
GO:0045202 (C) synapse [P48320, P48318 ];
GO:0030170 (F) pyridoxal phosphate binding [P48320, P48318 ];
GO:0000139 (C) Golgi membrane [P48320 ];

Subcellular localization


synapse [P48320 ];

golgi apparatus [P48320 ];

membrane [P48320 ];

cytoplasm [P48320 ];



P48318; P48320

Entrez Gene

14415; 14417

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min