Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

glutamate decarboxylase

Name from literature

glutamate decarboxylase

Pathway from literature

gama-amino butrylic acid (GABA) production

Pathway from KEGG

Amino Acid Metabolism; Glutamate metabolism; map00251

Human Diseases; Metabolic Disorders; Type I diabetes mellitus; map04940

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; beta-Alanine metabolism; map00410

Amino Acid Metabolism; Alanine and aspartate metabolism; map00252

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Butanoate metabolism; map00650

Metabolism of Other Amino Acids; Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; map00430


Rat (10116)

Genome localization

17q12.3[24380 ], 3q21[24379 ],


A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, 3-sulfino-L-alanine and L-aspartate.

Rate-limiting Description

"Changes in the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme in gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis, in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were measured in several brain areas involved in glucoregulation." (2180326)

"We have studied the regulation of the mRNA encoding one such protein, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate limiting enzyme of GABA synthesis, after a unilateral lesion in the hippocampus that leads to increased seizure susceptibility." (1976015)

"Rates for glucose flux through the GABA shunt and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme in GABA synthesis, were measured in ventro-medial nucleus (VMN) and lateral hypothalamic (LHA) homogenates." (2735448)

Regulatory Information

Regulatory type










transcriptional factor;

"Hindbrain neuroglucopenia elicits site-specific transcriptional activation of glutamate decarboxylase-immunopositive neurons in the septopreoptic area of female rat brain." (17934249)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0019752 (P) carboxylic acid metabolic process [Q05683, P18088 ];
GO:0031225 (C) anchored to membrane [Q71UF5 ];
GO:0030054 (C) cell junction [Q05683 ];
GO:0004351 (F) glutamate decarboxylase activity [Q71UF5, Q05683, P18088 ];
GO:0042136 (P) neurotransmitter biosynthetic process [Q05683, P18088 ];
GO:0007268 (P) synaptic transmission [Q71UF5 ];
GO:0045202 (C) synapse [Q05683 ];
GO:0031410 (C) cytoplasmic vesicle [Q05683 ];
GO:0030672 (C) synaptic vesicle membrane [Q71UF5 ];
GO:0006540 (P) glutamate decarboxylation to succinate [Q71UF5 ];
GO:0030170 (F) pyridoxal phosphate binding [Q05683, P18088 ];
GO:0048471 (C) perinuclear region of cytoplasm [Q71UF5 ];
GO:0000139 (C) Golgi membrane [Q05683 ];

Subcellular localization


synapse [Q05683 ];

golgi apparatus [Q05683 ];

membrane [Q05683 ];

cytoplasm [Q05683 ];



P18088; Q05683; Q71UF5

Entrez Gene

24379; 24380

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min