Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

xanthine dehydrogenase

Name from literature

xanthine oxidoreductase

Pathway from literature

purine catabolism

Pathway from KEGG

Nucleotide Metabolism; Purine metabolism; map00230


Mouse (10090)

Genome localization

17 E2|17 45.3 cM[22436 ],


Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine. The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum centre. The animal enzyme can be interconverted to EC, xanthine oxidase (the oxidase form). That from liver exists in vivo mainly in the dehydrogenase form, but can be converted into EC by storage at -20 _degree_C, by treatment with proteolytic agents or organic solvents, or by thiol reagents such as Cu2+, N-ethylmaleimide or 4-mercuribenzoate. The effect of thiol reagents can be reversed by thiols such as 1,4-dithioerythritol. This enzyme can also be converted into EC by EC, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide. In other animal tissues, the enzyme exists almost entirely as EC, but can be converted into the dehydrogenase form by 1,4-dithioerythritol.

Rate-limiting Description

"Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism occurring in most cell types." (12502743)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type






transcriptional factor;PPARgamma(19016)

"XOR is a novel regulator of adipogenesis and of PPARgamma activity and essential for the regulation of fat accretion." (17276354)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0050660 (F) FAD binding [Q00519 ];
GO:0051537 (F) 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding [Q00519 ];
GO:0030151 (F) molybdenum ion binding [Q00519 ];
GO:0007595 (P) lactation [Q00519 ];
GO:0005506 (F) iron ion binding [Q00519 ];
GO:0004855 (F) xanthine oxidase activity [Q00519 ];
GO:0009055 (F) electron carrier activity [Q00519 ];
GO:0005777 (C) peroxisome [Q00519 ];
GO:0004854 (F) xanthine dehydrogenase activity [Q00519 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [Q00519 ];
GO:0030856 (P) regulation of epithelial cell differentiation [Q00519 ];

Subcellular localization


peroxisome [Q00519 ];


Entrez Gene


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  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min