Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name


Name from literature


Pathway from literature

glucose metabolism

Pathway from KEGG

Human Diseases; Metabolic Disorders; Type II diabetes mellitus; map04930

Cellular Processes; Endocrine System; Insulin signaling pathway; map04910

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Starch and sucrose metabolism; map00500

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis; map00010

Human Diseases; Metabolic Disorders; Maturity onset diabetes of the young; map04950

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Galactose metabolism; map00052

Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites; Streptomycin biosynthesis; map00521


Rat (10116)

Genome localization

14q21[24385 ],


A group of enzymes found in invertebrates and microorganisms that are highly specific for glucose.

Rate-limiting Description

"BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glucokinase (GK) is the rate-limiting enzyme of hepatic glucose metabolism and acts as a sensor for glucose-stimulated insulin release in beta-cells." (16921397)

"We conclude that restricted expression of GK in muscle leads to an enhanced capacity for muscle glucose disposal and whole body glucose tolerance under conditions of maximal glucose-insulin stimulation, suggesting that under these conditions glucose phosphorylation becomes rate-limiting." (10593862)

"Glucokinase (GK) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway of the beta-cell and, even in the rat fetus at 22-days gestation, immediately before birth, acts as a sensor of glucose influencing the rate of glucose utilization." (10433237)

"In pancreatic beta-cells, glucokinase (GK), the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, mediates glucose-induced insulin release by regulating intracellular ATP production." (10905475)

"These results suggest that glucose phosphorylation is rate limiting for glucose uptake and utilization in FTO-2B and H4IIE cells." (8020491)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor


Regulatory type


transcriptional factor;HNF4alpha(25735)

"Activation of glucokinase gene expression by hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha in primary hepatocytes." (11950391)

transcriptional factor;PPARgamma(25664)

"PPAR-gamma can directly activate glucokinase expression in liver and may contribute to improving glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes." (14749268)

transcriptional factor;SREBP-1c(78968)

"insulin-dependent hepatic glucokinase expression is regulated by SREBP-1c" (15123649)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0045721 (P) negative regulation of gluconeogenesis [P17712 ];
GO:0005536 (F) glucose binding [P17712 ];
GO:0051594 (P) detection of glucose [P17712 ];
GO:0006096 (P) glycolysis [P17712 ];
GO:0005524 (F) ATP binding [P17712 ];
GO:0045725 (P) positive regulation of glycogen biosyntheti... [P17712 ];
GO:0032024 (P) positive regulation of insulin secretion [P17712 ];
GO:0042593 (P) glucose homeostasis [P17712 ];
GO:0004340 (F) glucokinase activity [P17712 ];
GO:0005515 (F) protein binding [P17712 ];




Entrez Gene


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  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min