Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

1.14.14.1

Official Name

unspecific monooxygenase

Name from literature

aromatase

Pathway from literature

converts testosterone to estradiol

Pathway from KEGG

Lipid Metabolism; Androgen and estrogen metabolism; map00150

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane degradation; map00361

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450; map00980

Metabolism of Cofactors and Vitamins; Retinol metabolism; map00830

Lipid Metabolism; Fatty acid metabolism; map00071

Lipid Metabolism; Linoleic acid metabolism; map00591

Lipid Metabolism; Arachidonic acid metabolism; map00590

Amino Acid Metabolism; Tryptophan metabolism; map00380

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450; map00982

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Drug metabolism - other enzymes; map00983

Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites; Caffeine metabolism; map00232

Organisms

Rat (10116)

Genome localization

6q11[25426 ], -[25086 ], 8q24[24296 ], 12q11[171352 ], 1q21[54246 ], 7q34[24303 ], 1q21[24299 ], 1q53[29277 ], 5q36[24307 ], 1q21[286953 ], 7q34[25053 ], 1q53[171521 ], 1q21[292728 ], 1q54[83790 ], 1q53[246070 ], 7q34[286963 ], 12p11[252931 ], 1q53[171518 ], 5q36[246767 ], 1q53[25011 ], 12p11[266682 ], 5q33[65210 ], 5q33[313375 ], 1q21[29295 ], 7q34[266684 ], 8q24[24297 ], 12p11[25642 ], 7q34[171522 ], 1q21[24894 ], 1q21[361523 ], 1q53[29298 ], 1q21[24895 ],

Comments

A group of heme-thiolate proteins (P-450), acting on a wide range of substrates including many xenobiotics, steroids, fatty acids, vitamins and prostaglandins; reactions catalysed include hydroxylation, epoxidation, N-oxidation, sulfooxidation, N-, S- and O-dealkylations, desulfation, deamination, and reduction of azo, nitro and N-oxide groups. Together with EC 1.6.2.4, NADPH---hemoprotein reductase, it forms a system in which two reducing equivalents are supplied by NADPH. Some of the reactions attributed to EC 1.14.15.3, alkane 1-monooxygenase, belong here.

Rate-limiting Description

"This is the rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis." (11259506)

"In these studies, several structurally related phthalates (0-200 microM) and Wy-14,643 (0-100 microM) were compared to MEHP for their effects on granulosa cell estradiol production and transcript levels of cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP 19, also known as aromatase (P450arom), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of androgens to estrogens." (11312650)

"MEHP is a female reproductive toxicant and decreases activity, mRNA, and protein levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol in ovarian granulosa cells." (12706301)

"The rate limiting step in estrogen biosynthesis is catalysed by an enzyme complex that includes the aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19), and regulation of the synthesis of this steroidogenic P450 is the level at which estrogen synthesis is controlled." (9365209)

Regulatory Information

Upstream transcription factor

24817;24790;25126;171302

Regulatory type

Detail

phosphorylation;

P00176

phosphorylation;

P04800

phosphorylation;

P05182

phosphorylation;

P00176:from_uniprot:128_Phosphoserine; by PKA

phosphorylation;

P00185:from_uniprot:364_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P04167:from_uniprot:128_Phosphoserine; by PKA

phosphorylation;

P05182:from_uniprot:129_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

P10634:from_uniprot:138_Phosphoserine

phosphorylation;

Q64583:from_uniprot:129_Phosphoserine; by PKA

transcriptional factor;NERE

"concluded that a novel transcriptional regulatory element NERE specifically regulates the expression of the CYP2D4" (12818430)

transcriptional factor;Sp1(24790)

"Diffusable CYP2E1-derived oxidative-stress mediators induce synthesis of laminin gamma 1 by increased Sp1-dependent transactivation in hepatic stellate cells." (12529372)

transcriptional factor;HNF-1alpha(24817)

"inflammatory cytokines inhibit CYP2E1 expression by control of HNF-1alpha function and regulation of other transcriptional factors acting on the CYP2E1 5'-upstream regulatory region." (12604681)

transcriptional level;TNF-alpha(24835)

"These data suggest that TNF-alpha contributes to downregulation of Cyp2c23, blood pressure regulation, and renal injury in angiotensin high-salt hypertension." (16415373)

transcriptional factor;HNF3(171302),STAT5b(25126)

"Synergistic action of hepatocyte nuclear factors 3 and 6 on CYP2C12 gene expression and suppression by growth hormone-activated STAT5b. Proposed model for female specific expression of CYP2C12 in adult rat liver." (10931833)

transcriptional factor;Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)

"Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), an orphan Nuclear receptor, was studied with respect to the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the hippocampus of rat and marmoset, since SF-1 is a regulator of steroid biosynthesis in the gonads." (11259506)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0031966 (C) mitochondrial membrane [P00185 ];
GO:0005783 (C) endoplasmic reticulum [P00185 ];
GO:0016020 (C) membrane [P22443 ];
GO:0050896 (P) response to stimulus [P10610, P51538 ];
GO:0020037 (F) heme binding [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P00185, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P22443, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];
GO:0005506 (F) iron ion binding [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P00185, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P22443, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];
GO:0005789 (C) endoplasmic reticulum membrane [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];
GO:0006631 (P) fatty acid metabolic process [P24464 ];
GO:0016021 (C) integral to membrane [Q4V8D1 ];
GO:0009055 (F) electron carrier activity [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P00185, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P22443, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];
GO:0005792 (C) microsome [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P00185, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];
GO:0050381 (F) unspecific monooxygenase activity [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P00185, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P22443, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q7M0C2, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P00185, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P22443, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];
GO:0007608 (P) sensory perception of smell [P10610, P51538 ];

Subcellular localization

Localization

cell membrane [P22443 ];

mitochondrion [P00185 ];

endoplasmic reticulum [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P00185, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];

microsome [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P00185, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q4V8D1, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];

membrane [P10610, P51590, P05183, P33274, P51871, P51869, P51870, P10634, P15129, P11510, P05178, P08683, P10633, P51538, Q8K4D6, P05179, P12938, P24464, P13108, P04799, P04800, P11711, P04167, P05182, P33272, P20812, Q64680, Q64678, P33273, P00176, P15149, Q64581, Q64583, P19225, P12939, P13107, P24470, P20814 ];

cytoplasm [P00185 ];

Links

SwissProt

P00176; P00185; P04167; P04799; P04800; P05178; P05179; P05182; P05183; P08683; P10610; P10633; P10634; P11510; P11711; P12938; P12939; P13107; P13108; P15129; P15149; P19225; P20812; P20814; P22443; P24464; P24470; P33272; P33273; P33274; P51538; P51590; P51869; P51870; P51871; Q4V8D1; Q64581; Q64583; Q64678; Q64680; Q7M0C2; Q8K4D6

Entrez Gene

171352; 171518; 171521; 171522; 24296; 24297; 24299; 24303; 24307; 246070; 246767; 24894; 24895; 25011; 25053; 25086; 252931; 25426; 25642; 266682; 266684; 286953; 286963; 292728; 29277; 29295; 29298; 313375; 361523; 54246; 65210; 83790



  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min