Center for Bioinformatics
Oxidoreductases | Transferases | Hydrolases | Lyases | Isomerases | Ligases

Basic Information

Enzyme Number

Official Name

alcohol dehydrogenase

Name from literature

Alcohol dehydrogenase

Pathway from literature

the conversion of retinol to retinoic acid

Pathway from KEGG

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450; map00980

Metabolism of Cofactors and Vitamins; Retinol metabolism; map00830

Lipid Metabolism; Fatty acid metabolism; map00071

Carbohydrate Metabolism; Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis; map00010

Amino Acid Metabolism; Tyrosine metabolism; map00350

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; 3-Chloroacrylic acid degradation; map00641

Lipid Metabolism; Bile acid biosynthesis; map00120

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; 1- and 2-Methylnaphthalene degradation; map00624

Xenobiotics Biodegradation and Metabolism; Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450; map00982


Mouse (10090)

Genome localization

3 H2[26876 ], 3 G3[11532 ], 3 G3|3 71.2 cM[11529 ], 3 G3|3 71.2 cM[11522 ],


A zinc protein. Acts on primary or secondary alcohols or hemi-acetals; the animal, but not the yeast, enzyme acts also on cyclic secondary alcohols.

Rate-limiting Description

"Some members of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family catalyze retinol oxidation, the rate-limiting step in RA synthesis." (8621625)

"The rate-limiting step in RA synthesis is the oxidation of retinol, a reaction that can be catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)." (8801166)

"Here we have examined mouse testis and epididymis for the presence of endogenous retinoic acid and for the expression of genes encoding class I and class IV alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), both of which catalyze retinol oxidation, the rate-limiting step in the conversion of retinol to retinoic acid." (9002638)

Regulatory Information

Regulatory type








transcriptional level;

"Ten kilobases of 5'-flanking region confers proper regulation of the mouse alcohol dehydrogenase-1 (Adh-1) gene in kidney and adrenal of transgenic mice." (8973327)

transcriptional level;RXRalpha

"Thus, RXRalpha differentially affects ADH and ALDH activity, leading to an increase in alcohol clearance, but a reduction in acetaldehyde elimination." (16829625)

Gene ontology

Gene ontology

GO:0048149 (P) behavioral response to ethanol [P00329 ];
GO:0008270 (F) zinc ion binding [P00329, Q64437, Q9QYY9, P28474 ];
GO:0042573 (P) retinoic acid metabolic process [P00329, Q64437 ];
GO:0033574 (P) response to testosterone stimulus [P00329 ];
GO:0003960 (F) NADPH:quinone reductase activity [Q9QYY9 ];
GO:0018119 (P) peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation [P28474 ];
GO:0032496 (P) response to lipopolysaccharide [P28474 ];
GO:0006081 (P) cellular aldehyde metabolic process [Q9QYY9 ];
GO:0005737 (C) cytoplasm [Q64437, Q9QYY9 ];
GO:0004022 (F) alcohol dehydrogenase activity [P00329, P28474 ];
GO:0051903 (F) S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase ... [P28474 ];
GO:0046294 (P) formaldehyde catabolic process [P28474 ];
GO:0042572 (P) retinol metabolic process [P00329, Q64437 ];
GO:0001523 (P) retinoid metabolic process [P28474 ];
GO:0032526 (P) response to retinoic acid [P00329 ];
GO:0046164 (P) alcohol catabolic process [Q9QYY9 ];
GO:0051409 (P) response to nitrosative stress [P28474 ];
GO:0003016 (P) respiratory system process [P28474 ];
GO:0004024 (F) alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent [Q9QYY9 ];
GO:0006068 (P) ethanol catabolic process [P00329, Q64437 ];
GO:0005739 (C) mitochondrion [P00329, P28474 ];
GO:0042803 (F) protein homodimerization activity [P00329, P28474 ];
GO:0004032 (F) aldehyde reductase activity [Q9QYY9 ];
GO:0045777 (P) positive regulation of blood pressure [P28474 ];
GO:0042375 (P) quinone cofactor metabolic process [Q9QYY9 ];
GO:0006067 (P) ethanol metabolic process [Q9QYY9 ];
GO:0004745 (F) retinol dehydrogenase activity [Q64437 ];
GO:0055114 (P) oxidation reduction [P00329, Q64437, Q9QYY9, P28474 ];

Subcellular localization


cytoplasm [P00329, Q64437, Q9QYY9, P28474 ];



P00329; P28474; Q64437; Q9QYY9

Entrez Gene

11522; 11529; 11532; 26876

  Copyright 2009, Center for Bioinformatics 
  Last Modified: 2009-03-24  
  Design by Zhao Min